斎藤あか理。 蔵の郷土館齋理屋敷

向井理&斎藤工がライバル銀行員役 池井戸潤原作ドラマ『アキラとあきら』

斎藤あか理

One- and two-photon absorption coefficients in Bi2O3-B2O3 and Bi2O3-SiO2 glasses, which are characterized with zero photoelasticity and visible transparency, are studied. The one-photon absorption coefficients in borate and silicate glasses depend on the existence of charge transfer phenomena, while the two-photon absorption coefficients obtained by Z-scan measurement is independent of the one-photon absorption. The interpretation by optical transition probabilities can be extended to elucidate the optical nonlinearity in ns2-type cation containing oxide glasses with zero PEC. The substitution of nitrogen for oxygen in phosphate glasses improves the chemical, thermal and mechanical properties and particularly reduces their very high hygroscopic character, although the preparation of homogeneous and free of defects oxynitride bulk phosphate glasses through ammonolysis represents a big challenge. This work reports on the synthesis and properties of a series of Nd-doped oxynitride phosphate glasses with composition Na0. 3K0. 3Ba0. Glasses in the BaO-SnO-P2O5-B2O3 system were prepared and evaluated in order to formulate preform glasses suitable for the fabrication of fiber cores with a very low photoelastic constant. A first glass system I: xBaO- 60-x SnO-40P 2 O 5 was designed with a constant P2O5 content and various BaO contents 0-40 mol. Introduction of 3 mol. The photoelastic constant was determined and the stability of the best formulations as well as their refractive index dispersion was established. The drawing temperature and isothermal heating time without crystal precipitation parameters were also accurately measured by using experimental time-temperature-transition. Considering that the refractive indices of the core and the cladding materials must match, detailed core and cladding compositions for a fiber enabling single-mode waveguide transmission were proposed. Published by AIP Publishing. Sn-containing silicate glasses with zero photoelastic constant PEC can potentially substitute zero-PEC Pb-containing glasses as optical fiber current sensor components based on the Faraday effect. These compounds allow monitoring of the electric power by measuring the electric current in high-voltage conductors operated with a 1550-nm light. The toxicity of Pb in these glasses still remains an important issue. However, replacing Pb in the sensors while minimizing the PEC of the resulting device would represent a significant breakthrough. We report a 43. 5SnO-56. 01 Chi 10 -12 Pa-1 observed with a wavelength of 632. 8 nm. C 2017 Optical Society of America• Weight loss measurements in water were recorded and the most durable glasses were those with the smallest average phosphate anion sizes, independent of the relative BaO and Fe2O3 contents. C 2017 Elsevier B. All rights reserved. Pb-containing glasses such as the PbO-SiO2 series are useful in optical devices because of their low-photoelastic constants PECs ; however, the toxic Pb component in these glasses is problematic. Transparent ternary ZnO-SnO-P2O5 glasses are potential substitutes for low-PEC Pb-containing glasses, but their thermal behavior is not well understood, which inhibits their ability to be drawn into fibers. Herein, we report the surface crystallization behavior of transparent ternary ZnO-SnO-P2O5 glasses, including those with low-PEC compositions, heated under isothermal conditions to temperatures above their glass-transition temperatures. The crystallization conditions for low-PEC phosphate glasses during their thermal processing into shapes of optical modules were deduced. The crystalline compounds precipitated on the surfaces were investigated via X-ray diffraction analysis, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and microscopic observations. A time-temperature-transformation diagram was constructed on the basis of the thermal stability of the glasses. We expect that this enhanced understanding of the crystallization behavior induced by the reshaping process will enable fabrication of precise polarization control devices with low PECs, such as optical-fiber current sensors, optical lenses, and filters. The BaO or SrO substitution effect of SnO on optical properties is nearly the same as ZnO substitution of the ternary zinc tin-phosphate glass without hazardous oxide. A new series of BaO-SnO-P2O5 glass characterized with a very low photoelastic constant of similar to 0. 08 B, high refractive index similar to 1. 66 , and better water durability is a candidate for precise polarization control devices such as optical filters and beam splitters. C 2015 Optical Society of America• An optical fiber made of zinc tin boro-phosphate glass having a zero photoelastic constant, good water durability, and excluding hazardous elements was drawn from a prepared preform for use in a fiber-type current sensor device. The proposed cladding compositions enable single-mode propagation for a wavelength of 1550 nm, which is estimated from the difference in the refractive index between the core and cladding compositions. The drawing conditions should be controlled since the multiple-component glass is very sensitive to changes in viscosity and crystal precipitation during the heat-treated stretching of the preform. The temperature dependence of viscosity in the core and cladding reveals the feasibility of drawing. c 2015 The Japan Society of Applied Physics• We report properties of zero birefringent xZnO- 67-x SnO- 33-y P2O5-yB 2 O 3 glasses, within 18. These compositions of boro-phosphate glasses provide both zero photoelastic constant PEC and improved water durability. 002 x 10 -12 Pa-1, which can contribute to candidate material for fiber current sensor devise without lead. The structures of zero photoelastic glasses were investigated by Raman scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Compositions of zero PEC glasses are explained by the empirical model proposed by Zwanziger et al. [Chem. Mater. 19, 286-290 2007 ]. C 2015 Author s. Interaction between the different borate species was analysed using the B-11 double quantum-simple quantum experiment to i investigate the presence and nature of the B-O-B linkage, ii assign the different borate species observed all along the composition line and iii monitor the borate network formation. In addition, Sn-119 static NMR was used to investigate the evolution of the chemical environment of the tin polyhedra. The structural data were then used to explain the non-linear and unusual evolution of the glass transition temperature. We show that density and glass transition temperature increase while molar volume and thermal expansion coefficient decrease with increasing B2O3 concentration. In order to explain this unconventional behaviour, the glass structure has been investigated using high magnetic field 1 dimensional P-31 and B-11 MAS-NMR, micro-Raman and infrared spectroscopies. B-11 MAS-NMR experiments allow to i monitor the 3- and 4-fold coordinated borate species proportion and ii highlight the presence of unreported 4-fold coordinated species in the region III. Finally, it is shown that substitution of P2O5 by B2O3 induces an alteration of the dimeric phosphate network and formation of mixed anion structure that consists of Q 0 phosphate units, 3- and 4-fold coordinated borate units and their combinations. C 2014 Elsevier B. All rights reserved. Red fluorescence lamellae in prismatic layers of Pinctada vulgaris shell were investigated. SEM-EDS, XRD, and TG-DTA were utilized to characterize prismatic layers. We found that prismatic layers are calcitic prismatic CP layers with rich organic substances. Excitation spectrum for red fluorescence determined by a spectrophotometer indicates that the fluorescent matter in the organic substances is porphyrin compound derivatives. By using a fluorescence microspectroscope, the cross section of CP layers shows red fluorescence forming lamellar pattern. The lamellar pattern consists of red and black parallel zones with a modulation of emission intensity. Elemental mapping show a correlation of the fluorescence intensity decay with sulphur-rich zones occupying the CP layers in the black zones. C 2014 Optical Society of America• Their dissolution behaviour was evaluated by macroscopic inspection, by measurement of weight loss per unit area, changes in the pH of the solution, x-ray diffraction analysis and infrared spectroscopy. The thermal properties of ZnO-SnO-P2O5 ZSP glasses are evaluated for preparing optical fibres relevant to fibre current-sensor applications. Time-temperature-transformation TTT diagrams of ZSP glasses are presented based on x-ray diffraction analysis and microstructural observations. Thermal stability for fibre drawing is discussed along with viscosity data. Selected fabrication conditions, which can minimize microcrystal formation during isothermal heat treatments, are proposed for ZSP glass fibres. The thermal properties of ZnO-SnO-P2O5 ZSP glasses are evaluated for preparing optical fibres relevant to fibre current-sensor applications. Time-temperature-transformation TTT diagrams of ZSP glasses are presented based on x-ray diffraction analysis and microstructural observations. Thermal stability for fibre drawing is discussed along with viscosity data. Selected fabrication conditions, which can minimize microcrystal formation during isothermal heat treatments, are proposed for ZSP glass fibres. The photoelastic constant PEC is evaluated for 15 zinc tin phosphate glasses in a series of xZnO- 67-x SnO-33P 2 O 5 where x is 0-30 mol. 5-7 mol. The phase retardation of polarized light, passing through a disk sample with applying various uniaxial loads, was measured for PEC determinations by using a frequency stabilized transverse Zeeman He-Ne laser as a polarized light source. The substitution of ZnO for SnO results in the increase of PEC from negative to positive values in the range of -1. 45 x 10 -12 Pa-1. The minimum PEC value of 0. 02 x 10 -12 Pa-1 was experimentally obtained in the 18. 5 mol. 5 mol. C 2012 Optical Society of America• Structures and optical properties of selenium-loaded single-crystalline ZSM-5 z-Se have been studied. Obtained results are compared with those for bulk Se. Structural measurements using Raman-scattering and X-ray diffraction reveal that Se clusters in the ZSM-5 exist as single chains. Electron-spin resonance ESR measurements suggest that the chain has finite lengths of 5 nm. Optical properties and photoinduced phenomena of z-Se are explored through ESR, absorption a , and photoluminescence PL measurements upon exposure of visible light at room temperature. We consider tactics for attaining maximal optical nonlinearity at telecommunication wavelengths of 1. 5 mu m h over bar omega approximate to 0. 8 eV. The nonlinearity becomes greater in a material with a smaller optical gap, but it must be wider than 1 eV for needed transparency. This trade-off makes the chalcogenide glass suitable for fiber devices similar to 1 m , including optical switches and intensity stabilizers. However, for waveguide devices with optical path lengths of similar to 1 cm, greater nonlinearity is required. We propose Se-loaded zeolites, which possess greater intensity-dependent nonlinear coefficients than those of pure Se by three orders of magnitude, is promising for this purpose. Semi-free As2S3 flakes undergo visible-scale anisotropic deformations when exposed to linearly-polarized bandgap illumination. We investigate the behavior and also those in amorphous Se, GeS2, AgAsS2, and crystalline As2S3. These results suggest that the deformation occurs through photo-induced birefringence, photo-induced fluidity. and optical force. C 2009 Elsevier B. All rights reserved. Atomic structures of Se clusters impregnated into ZSM-5 single crystals have been investigated through structural and optical experiments. Raman-scattering spectroscopy suggests that Se in the zeolite takes single chain structures. X-ray diffraction implies that the chains form fourfold not threefold as in trigonal Se helices. The chain length is estimated from weight and electron-spin resonance measurements at 102 atoms. The material shows an optical absorption edge at h omega similar or equal to 2. 2 eV, which accompanies dichroism, suggesting chain alignment in the zeolite pores. c 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10. 3143609]• Photoinduced phenomena in Se-loaded ZSM-5 single crystals have been studied through electron-spin resonance, optical absorption, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Marked exposure effects appear at room temperature. Upon illumination of visible light, an electron-spin signal at g approximate to 2. 00 increases by an order, subgap absorption of 10 3 cm -1 appears, and photoluminescence at subgap regions weakens to a half. Timescales of these photoinduced changes including recoveries are not the same, which suggests different origins for the three changes. The spin increase evinces bond scission in single Se chains. C 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10. 3143612]• Nonlinear optical properties of Se-loaded ZSM-5 single crystals have been studied comparatively with those of glassy Se. Two-photon absorption coefficients and intensity-dependent refractive-index of the Se-zeolite are higher by three orders of magnitude than those of glassy Se. The enhancements can be ascribed to electron confinement in single Se chains. Sulfur, selenium, and tellurium were loaded into sub-millimeter size ZSM-5 single crystals, and the optical properties have been comparatively studied. S and Te show similar features, while Se is unique. S and Te have optical absorption edges at wavelengths of similar to 400 nm with transmission dips at similar to 450 nm, while Se has the edge at similar to 550 nm. The three materials provide photoluminescence at visible wavelengths, with the intensities of S and Te being stronger than that of Se by two orders. These optical properties imply that S and Te in the zeolite form small atomic units such as S 3 and Te 2 , while Se condenses into single-chain structures. C 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Semi-free As2S3 glass flakes undergo sub-mm scale anisotropic deformation upon illumination of linearly-polarized cw bandgap light. The mechanism has been ascribed to photoinduced birefringence, optical torque, and photo-induced fluidity. Quantitative measurements demonstrate that generated optical torque is similar to 10 -20 Nm under a light intensity of 1 mW. This value combined with measured deformation rates for As2S3 cantilevers suggests a related photo-induced fluidity of 10 -1 P-1, which is much more fluidal similar to ten orders than that reported in the conventional photo-induced fluidity. Reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. KGaA, Weinheim• Two aspects of photoinduced phenomena in oxide and chalcogenide glasses have been studied. One is a comparison of irreversible, reversible, and transitory changes in As 2 S 3 , which gives insights into universal features of the photoinduced phenomenon. The other is composition dependence of structures and photodarkening in GeO 2 -GeS 2 glasses. The dependence suggests that percolating GeS 2 structures are required for the photodarkening. Microscopic structures of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 films, electrically phase-changed using co-planar electrodes, have been studied through electrical and structural investigations. Microscope images show a structured phase-change region consisting of a narrow channel, banks on both sides, and rough peripheral regions. The room-temperature resistivity is similar to 10 - 30 Omega. cm, which has a metallic temperature dependence. Micro-Raman scattering spectra at the channel and the bank exhibit peaks due to crystalline Te and tellurides. X-ray diffraction patterns from the films, which contain many channels, present crystalline peaks ascribable to cubic GeTe and other compounds. These observations suggest that the Ge2Sb2Te5 melt is liable to phase-separate under electrical self-heating. c 2008 The Japan Society of Applied Physics. Linear and nonlinear optical properties in oxide and chalcogenide glasses have been studied comparatively. 6 eV. It is also shown for SiO2 and As2S3 that linear and nonlinear optical excitations induce different photostructural changes, which are attributable to different photo-electronic transition probabilities. There are two types of the coordination manner of P-O bonds in the solvation structure, corner sharing and edge sharing. c 2006 Elsevier B. All rights reserved. A dramatic increase of F-2-laser induced room temperature-stable point defects in 'wet' synthetic silica glass occurs when irradiation temperature is lowered to 80 K. Contrary to the predictions based on the established models of defect processes, a large part of defects induced at 80 K remains stable also at the room temperature. The intensities of the laser-induced optical absorption bands of the non-bridging oxygen hole centers 2. 0 and 4. 8 eV and E'-centers 5. A growth of infrared absorption peak at 2237 cm -1 indicates creation of silicon hydride SiH groups. A study of irradiation dose dependences and irradiation efficiency at intermediate temperatures 160 K suggests a novel radiation damage mechanism by insertion of atomic hydrogen in electronically excited Si-O bond. EPR spectra show E' gamma -like centers overlapped by a new type of E'-centers, characterized by a hyperfine splitting of 0. 08 mT of the low-field peak in the derivative spectrum. The new E'-center is assigned to a silicon dangling bond, with the Si atom bonded by two bridging oxygens and an OH group 'E' OH '. Similar centers have been previously observed on SiO2 surfaces. c 2006 Elsevier B. All rights reserved. This striking difference indicates that the primary roles of the P-doping and the M-doping are attributed to "enthalpy of mixing" and to "entropy of mixing", respectively. Simulation of the observed ESEEM pattern revealed a striking difference in the solvation shell structure between the P-doped and the P-free glasses, i. , the P doping is very effective for the formation of the solvation shell, while no such an effect was observed for the B doping. When P and B are simultaneously doped, the solvation shell structure is close to that in the P-doped samples. Analysis of the observed ESEEM pattern with simulation revealed that the number of P-ions in the coordination sphere is larger by an order of magnitude than that expected from the uniform distribution of P, demonstrating the formation of a solvation shell structure. It has been found that two types of the coordination manner of P-O bonds co-exist in the solvation structure, corner-sharing and edge-sharing. This solvation shell structure is almost the same as that for the calcium phosphate glass. A principle of self-developing microlenses for semiconductor lasers has been demonstrated using a photosensitive glass, As2S3. The glass film is placed in front of a semiconductor laser, the light from which increases the refractive index and thickness of the film. If its position and thickness are properly selected, the illuminated film operates as an aspherical microlens which can focus an elliptical laser beam to a circular spot. C 2003 American Institute of Physics. Three types of As2S3 microlenses attached onto end surfaces of optical fibers have been fabricated, and their characteristics are evaluated. These lenses are formed through photostructural transformations induced by He-Ne laser light, which is propagated in the fibers, so that the lenses are automatically positioned at the center of fiber cores. The lenses can be used at red to infrared wavelengths, and a minimal focal length is about 10 mum. C 2002 Elsevier Science B. All rights reserved. Convex microlenses of As2S3 glass have been fabricated on oxide-glass fiber ends by use of a photolithographic technique. As2S3 film evaporated on the end surface of an optical fiber is exposed to light through the opposite end surface, and the film etching is observed under a microscope. This process produces a lens that is automatically positioned on the fiber core. The As2S3 film possesses a high refractive index, which is favorable for production of microlenses with short focal lengths of similar to 10 mum. C 2000 Optical Society of America.

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向井理&斎藤工がライバル銀行員役 池井戸潤原作ドラマ『アキラとあきら』

斎藤あか理

『連続ドラマW アキラとあきら』が7月にWOWOWで放送される。 同作は、ドラマ『半沢直樹』『下町ロケット』などの原作者として知られる池井戸潤が、2006年から2009年まで『問題小説』に連載していた『アキラとあきら』を映像化した作品。 大企業の御曹司である階堂彬と、父の会社の倒産や夜逃げなどの苦難を経験してきた山崎瑛の「宿命」の物語となり、1986年に産業中央銀行に入社した2人がバンカーとして成長してく様や、過酷に直面する様子が描かれる。 大企業「東海郵船」の次期社長という宿命に抗うエリートの彬役を演じるのは向井理。 過酷な運命に翻弄されながらも自身の人生を切り拓く瑛役を斎藤工が演じる。 向井はプライベートでも交流があるという斎藤との共演について「しっかりと対峙して二人芝居に挑戦するのは本作が初めてで不思議な感じですが、楽しんでやれればと思います」とコメント。 一方の斎藤は「彼自身がどういう道を歩んできて、そしてどこにいくのか興味がありますし、そうした中で今回、初めて深く関わっていけることはとても楽しみな現場です」と語っている。 監督は『連続ドラマW 沈まぬ太陽』などの水谷俊之と、『連続ドラマW 下町ロケット』などの鈴木浩介。 なお原作は大幅な加筆修正を加えて、5月31日に文庫判で刊行される予定だ。 向井理のコメント WOWOWの『連続ドラマW』初出演についての感想 長いことWOWOWを視聴者として見ていましたし、特にドラマWはいつも観ていたので、出演させていただくことは素直に嬉しいです。 出演する事が目標の一つでもあったので、撮影が本当に楽しみです。 池井戸潤原作のドラマに初出演する思いについて 池井戸さんご自身のご経験からいつもとてもリアリティがあり、尚且つエンターテインメント性もある作品なのでとても楽しみでした。 また、本作のような同世代の友情、そして一見するとライバル関係、主人公二人のタイプが違うからこそお互いが認め合うお話は今までになかったと思うのでとても新鮮です。 斎藤工との共演について 共演するのは本作で4作目になりますし、同じ年でプライベートでも話はしています。 初めての時は変な人だなって思って見てました(笑)。 しっかりと対峙して二人芝居に挑戦するのは本作が初めてで不思議な感じですが、楽しんでやれればと思います。 視聴者へのメッセージ 職業物の骨太なストーリーとエンターテインメントの要素、そしてすごく芯の通った作品だと思います。 WOWOWに初めて出演させていただきますし、最後まで楽しんで見ていただけるよう、とにかく気合を入れて頑張っております。 また、ドラマを通して僕も銀行について初めて知った部分が沢山あります。 僕の叔父はまさにこの時代に銀行員でしたので、色んな話を聞いて現場に臨んでいます。 また、バブルを境に価値観やファッションなど日本は変わったと思いますが、今回スーツも時代に合わせて太さやディティールにこだわっています。 リアリティとエンターテインメントの両方を楽しんでいただけると思います。 斎藤工のコメント WOWOWの『連続ドラマW』初出演についての感想 WOWOWではずっと「映画工房」という番組でナビゲーターを務めさせて頂いていますが、一視聴者として、WOWOW制作のドラマには映画のような作品が多いと思っていました。 俳優として自分自身も、いつかそこに触れてみたいと感じていたので、今回ご出演させていただけることは非常に光栄です。 池井戸潤原作のドラマに初出演する思いについて 原作本がこれから発売されるというのは非常に珍しい機会ですし、本作では池井戸さんご自身のご経験も含んでバブル時代を経た日本が描かれているかと思います。 その映像化作品に出演させていただくことに何か特別な意味を感じていて、去年でも来年でもなく今、出会うべき作品だなと思っています。 向井理との共演について 俳優をされている方々の中で数少ない同学年です(笑)。 向井さんは客観性を持っていて良い意味でクールな部分もあり、階堂彬に通じているところがあると思います。 また、俳優としての彼の歩みの奥に隠れたうごめくものが同時にあるなと感じています。 彼自身がどういう道を歩んできて、そしてどこにいくのか興味がありますし、そうした中で今回、初めて深く関わっていけることはとても楽しみな現場です。 視聴者へのメッセージ このドラマは2時間に集約できない映画に関わっている感覚がすごくあります。 また、根が太くて強いところから始まっているので、風が吹いたり、雨が降ったり、太陽を浴び過ぎても、根がしっかりしている体制の中で臨めるということは現場としてとても幸せです。 その想いがそのまま作品に宿ると思いますし、日本の特別な時期を描く中で、その時代を見て、ぜひ今と未来が見える体験をしてほしいです。 僕ら自身が実際に体感させていただいているように、視聴者の方々にもしっかりリンクするテーマだと思っています。 池井戸潤のコメント 『アキラとあきら』は10年以上前に書き、眠っていた作品です。 今回それを「発掘」していただき、WOWOW「連続ドラマW」の一作品としてクオリティの高いヒューマンドラマとして世に出せることは、喜びに堪えません。 出演者の皆さんの熱い演技を期待しています。

次の

蔵の郷土館齋理屋敷

斎藤あか理

One- and two-photon absorption coefficients in Bi2O3-B2O3 and Bi2O3-SiO2 glasses, which are characterized with zero photoelasticity and visible transparency, are studied. The one-photon absorption coefficients in borate and silicate glasses depend on the existence of charge transfer phenomena, while the two-photon absorption coefficients obtained by Z-scan measurement is independent of the one-photon absorption. The interpretation by optical transition probabilities can be extended to elucidate the optical nonlinearity in ns2-type cation containing oxide glasses with zero PEC. The substitution of nitrogen for oxygen in phosphate glasses improves the chemical, thermal and mechanical properties and particularly reduces their very high hygroscopic character, although the preparation of homogeneous and free of defects oxynitride bulk phosphate glasses through ammonolysis represents a big challenge. This work reports on the synthesis and properties of a series of Nd-doped oxynitride phosphate glasses with composition Na0. 3K0. 3Ba0. Glasses in the BaO-SnO-P2O5-B2O3 system were prepared and evaluated in order to formulate preform glasses suitable for the fabrication of fiber cores with a very low photoelastic constant. A first glass system I: xBaO- 60-x SnO-40P 2 O 5 was designed with a constant P2O5 content and various BaO contents 0-40 mol. Introduction of 3 mol. The photoelastic constant was determined and the stability of the best formulations as well as their refractive index dispersion was established. The drawing temperature and isothermal heating time without crystal precipitation parameters were also accurately measured by using experimental time-temperature-transition. Considering that the refractive indices of the core and the cladding materials must match, detailed core and cladding compositions for a fiber enabling single-mode waveguide transmission were proposed. Published by AIP Publishing. Sn-containing silicate glasses with zero photoelastic constant PEC can potentially substitute zero-PEC Pb-containing glasses as optical fiber current sensor components based on the Faraday effect. These compounds allow monitoring of the electric power by measuring the electric current in high-voltage conductors operated with a 1550-nm light. The toxicity of Pb in these glasses still remains an important issue. However, replacing Pb in the sensors while minimizing the PEC of the resulting device would represent a significant breakthrough. We report a 43. 5SnO-56. 01 Chi 10 -12 Pa-1 observed with a wavelength of 632. 8 nm. C 2017 Optical Society of America• Weight loss measurements in water were recorded and the most durable glasses were those with the smallest average phosphate anion sizes, independent of the relative BaO and Fe2O3 contents. C 2017 Elsevier B. All rights reserved. Pb-containing glasses such as the PbO-SiO2 series are useful in optical devices because of their low-photoelastic constants PECs ; however, the toxic Pb component in these glasses is problematic. Transparent ternary ZnO-SnO-P2O5 glasses are potential substitutes for low-PEC Pb-containing glasses, but their thermal behavior is not well understood, which inhibits their ability to be drawn into fibers. Herein, we report the surface crystallization behavior of transparent ternary ZnO-SnO-P2O5 glasses, including those with low-PEC compositions, heated under isothermal conditions to temperatures above their glass-transition temperatures. The crystallization conditions for low-PEC phosphate glasses during their thermal processing into shapes of optical modules were deduced. The crystalline compounds precipitated on the surfaces were investigated via X-ray diffraction analysis, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and microscopic observations. A time-temperature-transformation diagram was constructed on the basis of the thermal stability of the glasses. We expect that this enhanced understanding of the crystallization behavior induced by the reshaping process will enable fabrication of precise polarization control devices with low PECs, such as optical-fiber current sensors, optical lenses, and filters. The BaO or SrO substitution effect of SnO on optical properties is nearly the same as ZnO substitution of the ternary zinc tin-phosphate glass without hazardous oxide. A new series of BaO-SnO-P2O5 glass characterized with a very low photoelastic constant of similar to 0. 08 B, high refractive index similar to 1. 66 , and better water durability is a candidate for precise polarization control devices such as optical filters and beam splitters. C 2015 Optical Society of America• An optical fiber made of zinc tin boro-phosphate glass having a zero photoelastic constant, good water durability, and excluding hazardous elements was drawn from a prepared preform for use in a fiber-type current sensor device. The proposed cladding compositions enable single-mode propagation for a wavelength of 1550 nm, which is estimated from the difference in the refractive index between the core and cladding compositions. The drawing conditions should be controlled since the multiple-component glass is very sensitive to changes in viscosity and crystal precipitation during the heat-treated stretching of the preform. The temperature dependence of viscosity in the core and cladding reveals the feasibility of drawing. c 2015 The Japan Society of Applied Physics• We report properties of zero birefringent xZnO- 67-x SnO- 33-y P2O5-yB 2 O 3 glasses, within 18. These compositions of boro-phosphate glasses provide both zero photoelastic constant PEC and improved water durability. 002 x 10 -12 Pa-1, which can contribute to candidate material for fiber current sensor devise without lead. The structures of zero photoelastic glasses were investigated by Raman scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Compositions of zero PEC glasses are explained by the empirical model proposed by Zwanziger et al. [Chem. Mater. 19, 286-290 2007 ]. C 2015 Author s. Interaction between the different borate species was analysed using the B-11 double quantum-simple quantum experiment to i investigate the presence and nature of the B-O-B linkage, ii assign the different borate species observed all along the composition line and iii monitor the borate network formation. In addition, Sn-119 static NMR was used to investigate the evolution of the chemical environment of the tin polyhedra. The structural data were then used to explain the non-linear and unusual evolution of the glass transition temperature. We show that density and glass transition temperature increase while molar volume and thermal expansion coefficient decrease with increasing B2O3 concentration. In order to explain this unconventional behaviour, the glass structure has been investigated using high magnetic field 1 dimensional P-31 and B-11 MAS-NMR, micro-Raman and infrared spectroscopies. B-11 MAS-NMR experiments allow to i monitor the 3- and 4-fold coordinated borate species proportion and ii highlight the presence of unreported 4-fold coordinated species in the region III. Finally, it is shown that substitution of P2O5 by B2O3 induces an alteration of the dimeric phosphate network and formation of mixed anion structure that consists of Q 0 phosphate units, 3- and 4-fold coordinated borate units and their combinations. C 2014 Elsevier B. All rights reserved. Red fluorescence lamellae in prismatic layers of Pinctada vulgaris shell were investigated. SEM-EDS, XRD, and TG-DTA were utilized to characterize prismatic layers. We found that prismatic layers are calcitic prismatic CP layers with rich organic substances. Excitation spectrum for red fluorescence determined by a spectrophotometer indicates that the fluorescent matter in the organic substances is porphyrin compound derivatives. By using a fluorescence microspectroscope, the cross section of CP layers shows red fluorescence forming lamellar pattern. The lamellar pattern consists of red and black parallel zones with a modulation of emission intensity. Elemental mapping show a correlation of the fluorescence intensity decay with sulphur-rich zones occupying the CP layers in the black zones. C 2014 Optical Society of America• Their dissolution behaviour was evaluated by macroscopic inspection, by measurement of weight loss per unit area, changes in the pH of the solution, x-ray diffraction analysis and infrared spectroscopy. The thermal properties of ZnO-SnO-P2O5 ZSP glasses are evaluated for preparing optical fibres relevant to fibre current-sensor applications. Time-temperature-transformation TTT diagrams of ZSP glasses are presented based on x-ray diffraction analysis and microstructural observations. Thermal stability for fibre drawing is discussed along with viscosity data. Selected fabrication conditions, which can minimize microcrystal formation during isothermal heat treatments, are proposed for ZSP glass fibres. The thermal properties of ZnO-SnO-P2O5 ZSP glasses are evaluated for preparing optical fibres relevant to fibre current-sensor applications. Time-temperature-transformation TTT diagrams of ZSP glasses are presented based on x-ray diffraction analysis and microstructural observations. Thermal stability for fibre drawing is discussed along with viscosity data. Selected fabrication conditions, which can minimize microcrystal formation during isothermal heat treatments, are proposed for ZSP glass fibres. The photoelastic constant PEC is evaluated for 15 zinc tin phosphate glasses in a series of xZnO- 67-x SnO-33P 2 O 5 where x is 0-30 mol. 5-7 mol. The phase retardation of polarized light, passing through a disk sample with applying various uniaxial loads, was measured for PEC determinations by using a frequency stabilized transverse Zeeman He-Ne laser as a polarized light source. The substitution of ZnO for SnO results in the increase of PEC from negative to positive values in the range of -1. 45 x 10 -12 Pa-1. The minimum PEC value of 0. 02 x 10 -12 Pa-1 was experimentally obtained in the 18. 5 mol. 5 mol. C 2012 Optical Society of America• Structures and optical properties of selenium-loaded single-crystalline ZSM-5 z-Se have been studied. Obtained results are compared with those for bulk Se. Structural measurements using Raman-scattering and X-ray diffraction reveal that Se clusters in the ZSM-5 exist as single chains. Electron-spin resonance ESR measurements suggest that the chain has finite lengths of 5 nm. Optical properties and photoinduced phenomena of z-Se are explored through ESR, absorption a , and photoluminescence PL measurements upon exposure of visible light at room temperature. We consider tactics for attaining maximal optical nonlinearity at telecommunication wavelengths of 1. 5 mu m h over bar omega approximate to 0. 8 eV. The nonlinearity becomes greater in a material with a smaller optical gap, but it must be wider than 1 eV for needed transparency. This trade-off makes the chalcogenide glass suitable for fiber devices similar to 1 m , including optical switches and intensity stabilizers. However, for waveguide devices with optical path lengths of similar to 1 cm, greater nonlinearity is required. We propose Se-loaded zeolites, which possess greater intensity-dependent nonlinear coefficients than those of pure Se by three orders of magnitude, is promising for this purpose. Semi-free As2S3 flakes undergo visible-scale anisotropic deformations when exposed to linearly-polarized bandgap illumination. We investigate the behavior and also those in amorphous Se, GeS2, AgAsS2, and crystalline As2S3. These results suggest that the deformation occurs through photo-induced birefringence, photo-induced fluidity. and optical force. C 2009 Elsevier B. All rights reserved. Atomic structures of Se clusters impregnated into ZSM-5 single crystals have been investigated through structural and optical experiments. Raman-scattering spectroscopy suggests that Se in the zeolite takes single chain structures. X-ray diffraction implies that the chains form fourfold not threefold as in trigonal Se helices. The chain length is estimated from weight and electron-spin resonance measurements at 102 atoms. The material shows an optical absorption edge at h omega similar or equal to 2. 2 eV, which accompanies dichroism, suggesting chain alignment in the zeolite pores. c 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10. 3143609]• Photoinduced phenomena in Se-loaded ZSM-5 single crystals have been studied through electron-spin resonance, optical absorption, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Marked exposure effects appear at room temperature. Upon illumination of visible light, an electron-spin signal at g approximate to 2. 00 increases by an order, subgap absorption of 10 3 cm -1 appears, and photoluminescence at subgap regions weakens to a half. Timescales of these photoinduced changes including recoveries are not the same, which suggests different origins for the three changes. The spin increase evinces bond scission in single Se chains. C 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10. 3143612]• Nonlinear optical properties of Se-loaded ZSM-5 single crystals have been studied comparatively with those of glassy Se. Two-photon absorption coefficients and intensity-dependent refractive-index of the Se-zeolite are higher by three orders of magnitude than those of glassy Se. The enhancements can be ascribed to electron confinement in single Se chains. Sulfur, selenium, and tellurium were loaded into sub-millimeter size ZSM-5 single crystals, and the optical properties have been comparatively studied. S and Te show similar features, while Se is unique. S and Te have optical absorption edges at wavelengths of similar to 400 nm with transmission dips at similar to 450 nm, while Se has the edge at similar to 550 nm. The three materials provide photoluminescence at visible wavelengths, with the intensities of S and Te being stronger than that of Se by two orders. These optical properties imply that S and Te in the zeolite form small atomic units such as S 3 and Te 2 , while Se condenses into single-chain structures. C 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Semi-free As2S3 glass flakes undergo sub-mm scale anisotropic deformation upon illumination of linearly-polarized cw bandgap light. The mechanism has been ascribed to photoinduced birefringence, optical torque, and photo-induced fluidity. Quantitative measurements demonstrate that generated optical torque is similar to 10 -20 Nm under a light intensity of 1 mW. This value combined with measured deformation rates for As2S3 cantilevers suggests a related photo-induced fluidity of 10 -1 P-1, which is much more fluidal similar to ten orders than that reported in the conventional photo-induced fluidity. Reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. KGaA, Weinheim• Two aspects of photoinduced phenomena in oxide and chalcogenide glasses have been studied. One is a comparison of irreversible, reversible, and transitory changes in As 2 S 3 , which gives insights into universal features of the photoinduced phenomenon. The other is composition dependence of structures and photodarkening in GeO 2 -GeS 2 glasses. The dependence suggests that percolating GeS 2 structures are required for the photodarkening. Microscopic structures of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 films, electrically phase-changed using co-planar electrodes, have been studied through electrical and structural investigations. Microscope images show a structured phase-change region consisting of a narrow channel, banks on both sides, and rough peripheral regions. The room-temperature resistivity is similar to 10 - 30 Omega. cm, which has a metallic temperature dependence. Micro-Raman scattering spectra at the channel and the bank exhibit peaks due to crystalline Te and tellurides. X-ray diffraction patterns from the films, which contain many channels, present crystalline peaks ascribable to cubic GeTe and other compounds. These observations suggest that the Ge2Sb2Te5 melt is liable to phase-separate under electrical self-heating. c 2008 The Japan Society of Applied Physics. Linear and nonlinear optical properties in oxide and chalcogenide glasses have been studied comparatively. 6 eV. It is also shown for SiO2 and As2S3 that linear and nonlinear optical excitations induce different photostructural changes, which are attributable to different photo-electronic transition probabilities. There are two types of the coordination manner of P-O bonds in the solvation structure, corner sharing and edge sharing. c 2006 Elsevier B. All rights reserved. A dramatic increase of F-2-laser induced room temperature-stable point defects in 'wet' synthetic silica glass occurs when irradiation temperature is lowered to 80 K. Contrary to the predictions based on the established models of defect processes, a large part of defects induced at 80 K remains stable also at the room temperature. The intensities of the laser-induced optical absorption bands of the non-bridging oxygen hole centers 2. 0 and 4. 8 eV and E'-centers 5. A growth of infrared absorption peak at 2237 cm -1 indicates creation of silicon hydride SiH groups. A study of irradiation dose dependences and irradiation efficiency at intermediate temperatures 160 K suggests a novel radiation damage mechanism by insertion of atomic hydrogen in electronically excited Si-O bond. EPR spectra show E' gamma -like centers overlapped by a new type of E'-centers, characterized by a hyperfine splitting of 0. 08 mT of the low-field peak in the derivative spectrum. The new E'-center is assigned to a silicon dangling bond, with the Si atom bonded by two bridging oxygens and an OH group 'E' OH '. Similar centers have been previously observed on SiO2 surfaces. c 2006 Elsevier B. All rights reserved. This striking difference indicates that the primary roles of the P-doping and the M-doping are attributed to "enthalpy of mixing" and to "entropy of mixing", respectively. Simulation of the observed ESEEM pattern revealed a striking difference in the solvation shell structure between the P-doped and the P-free glasses, i. , the P doping is very effective for the formation of the solvation shell, while no such an effect was observed for the B doping. When P and B are simultaneously doped, the solvation shell structure is close to that in the P-doped samples. Analysis of the observed ESEEM pattern with simulation revealed that the number of P-ions in the coordination sphere is larger by an order of magnitude than that expected from the uniform distribution of P, demonstrating the formation of a solvation shell structure. It has been found that two types of the coordination manner of P-O bonds co-exist in the solvation structure, corner-sharing and edge-sharing. This solvation shell structure is almost the same as that for the calcium phosphate glass. A principle of self-developing microlenses for semiconductor lasers has been demonstrated using a photosensitive glass, As2S3. The glass film is placed in front of a semiconductor laser, the light from which increases the refractive index and thickness of the film. If its position and thickness are properly selected, the illuminated film operates as an aspherical microlens which can focus an elliptical laser beam to a circular spot. C 2003 American Institute of Physics. Three types of As2S3 microlenses attached onto end surfaces of optical fibers have been fabricated, and their characteristics are evaluated. These lenses are formed through photostructural transformations induced by He-Ne laser light, which is propagated in the fibers, so that the lenses are automatically positioned at the center of fiber cores. The lenses can be used at red to infrared wavelengths, and a minimal focal length is about 10 mum. C 2002 Elsevier Science B. All rights reserved. Convex microlenses of As2S3 glass have been fabricated on oxide-glass fiber ends by use of a photolithographic technique. As2S3 film evaporated on the end surface of an optical fiber is exposed to light through the opposite end surface, and the film etching is observed under a microscope. This process produces a lens that is automatically positioned on the fiber core. The As2S3 film possesses a high refractive index, which is favorable for production of microlenses with short focal lengths of similar to 10 mum. C 2000 Optical Society of America.

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