Question: How many communities are there in Tema?

Background. Tema Metropolis Assembly was made up of four districts (Tema East, Tema South, Tema West and Tema North). This metropolis is grouped into twenty-six communities. The most popular and busiest communities are Communities 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 9, 13 (Sakumono), 18, 19 and 20.

Which communities make up Tema West?

Ablekuma Central Municipal (Capital: Lartebiokorshie)Ablekuma North Municipal (Capital: Darkuman Kokompe)Ablekuma West Municipal (Capital: Dansoman)Adenta Municipal (Capital: Adenta)Ashaiman Municipal (Capital: Ashaiman)Ayawaso Central Municipal (Capital: Kokomlemle)Ayawaso East Municipal (Capital: Nima)More items...

Is Makkah centre of Earth?

The Mecca: the Center of the Earth, Theory and Practice conference was organized and attended by Muslim theologians and other religious officials from across the world.

What is TEMA known for?

Tema is locally nicknamed the Harbour City because of its status as Ghanas largest seaport. ... Tema is a city constructed on the site of a small fishing village. Tema was commissioned by Ghanas first president, Kwame Nkrumah, and grew rapidly after the construction of a large harbour in 1961.

Can you see Kaaba from space?

Taken from the International Space Space (ISS), the Masjid Al Haram (Grand Mosque) can be seen centered in the image with the caption, “As the place that lives in the hearts of Muslims and they turn to for prayers.”

Which city is Centre of world?

In 1973, Andrew J. Woods, a physicist with Gulf Energy and Environmental Systems in San Diego, California, used a digital global map and calculated the coordinates on a mainframe system as 39°00′N 34°00′E, in modern-day Turkey, near the district of Kırşehir, Kırşehir Province, approx. 1,800 km north of Giza.

The publication is provided for the use of clinicians, researchers, students, lawyers, and parents involved in legal and policy issues related to lesbian and gay parenting.

Lesbian and Gay Parenting is the successor to Lesbian and Gay Parenting: A Resource for Psychologists 1995. It is divided into three parts.

The 1991 publication was narrowly focused on providing an How many communities are there in Tema? to the research literature for psychologists doing child custody evaluations or giving expert testimony in court cases involving lesbian mothers. In addition, the publication was also targeted for lawyers and parties in parental rights cases involving lesbian parents, as the information provided could assist them in being better informed about the potential role of psychological research or psychological witnesses in their cases.

The relatively narrow focus of this publication was selected because the Office on Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity received a significant number of requests for resources on the relevant research literature from parents, lawyers and psychologists involved in parental rights cases. The committees broadened the focus of the publication to include the empirical research on gay fathers, as well as lesbian mothers, and the clinical literature relevant to psychological services for lesbian and gay parents, their children, and their families.

When the current edition was first planned in 1999, the committees decided that the focus of the publication should be narrowed again to serve the needs of psychologists, lawyers, and parties in family law cases.

The decision to narrow the focus was made because the need for the publication seemed to be primarily in the forensic context. Lesbian and Gay Parenting is divided into three parts. Although comprehensive, the research summary is focused on How many communities are there in Tema?

issues that often arise in family law cases involving lesbian mothers or gay fathers. We hope the publication will be useful to clinicians, researchers, students, lawyers, How many communities are there in Tema?

parents involved in legal and policy issues related to lesbian and gay parenting. We also thank Helen Supranova, Andrea Solarz, and Jessica Gehle for their work on the bibliography.

We especially thank Clinton Anderson, Director, Office on Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, who worked diligently with committee members and staff to move this manuscript toward publication. Dworkin, PhD, and Louise B. Silverstein, PhD Committee on Women in Psychology Beth Doll, PhD Committee on Children, Youth, and Families I wish particularly to thank Clinton Anderson for his invaluable assistance with the current version as well as with earlier versions of this manuscript.

I also offer warm thanks to Natalie Eldridge, Patricia Falk, Mary Clare, Larry Kurdek, April Martin, Vera Paster, and Roy Scrivner for their helpful comments on the first version of this manuscript and to the anonymous reviewers for their insightful help in updating the current version. As with beliefs about other socially stigmatized groups, the beliefs held generally in society about lesbians and gay men are often not based in personal experience, but are frequently culturally transmitted Herek, 1995; Gillis, 1998.

The purpose of this summary of research findings on lesbian and gay parents and their children is to evaluate widespread beliefs in the light of empirical data and in this way ameliorate negative effects of unwarranted prejudice. Because many beliefs about lesbian and gay parents and their children are open to empirical testing, psychological research How many communities are there in Tema? evaluate their accuracy. Systematic research comparing lesbian and gay adults to heterosexual adults began in the late 1950s, and research comparing children of lesbian and How many communities are there in Tema?

parents with those of heterosexual parents is of a more recent vintage. Research on lesbian and gay adults began with Evelyn Hooker's landmark study 1957resulted in the declassification of homosexuality as a mental disorder in 1973 Gonsiorek, 1991and continues today e. Case reports on children of lesbian and gay parents began to appear in the psychiatric literature in the early 1970s e.

Starting with the pioneering work of Martin and Lyon 1972first-person and fictionalized descriptions of life in lesbian mother families e. As this summary will show, the results of existing research comparing lesbian and gay parents to heterosexual parents and children of lesbian and gay parents to children of heterosexual parents are quite clear: Common stereotypes are not supported by the data.

Without denying the clarity of results to date, it is important also for psychologists and other professionals to be aware that research in this area has presented a variety of methodological challenges. As is true in any area of research, questions have been raised with regard to sampling issues, statistical power, and other technical matters e. In what follows, efforts will be made to highlight the extent to which the research literature has responded to such criticisms.

One criticism of this body of research has been that the research lacks external validity because samples studied to date may not be representative of the larger population of lesbian and gay parents Belcastro et al. Recent research on lesbian and gay adults has drawn on population-based samples e. Criticisms about nonsystematic sampling have also been addressed by studying samples drawn from known populations, so that response rates can be calculated e.

Thus, contemporary research on children of lesbian and gay parents involves a wider array of sampling techniques than did earlier studies. Research on children of lesbian and gay parents has also been criticized for using poorly matched or no control groups in designs that call for such controls.

Particularly notable in this category was the tendency of early studies to compare development among children of a group of divorced lesbian mothers, many of whom were living with lesbian partners, to that among children of a group of divorced heterosexual mothers who were not currently living with heterosexual partners.

The relevance of this criticism has been greatly reduced as research has expanded to explore life in a wider array of lesbian mother and gay father families many of which have never lived through the divorce of a heterosexual coupleand as newer studies begin to include a wider array of control groups. Thus, contemporary research on children of lesbian and gay parents involves a wider array of research designs and hence, control groups than did earlier studies.

Early studies did generally focus on well-educated, middle class families, but more recent research has included participants from a wider array of ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds e. Recent studies have been conducted not only in the United States, but also in the United Kingdom, in Belgium, and in the Netherlands e.

Thus, contemporary research on children of lesbian and gay parents involves a greater diversity of families than did earlier studies. Other criticisms have been that most studies have been based on relatively small samples, that there have been difficulties with assessment procedures employed in some studies, and that the classification of parents as lesbian, gay, or heterosexual has been problematic.

Again, contemporary research has benefited from such criticisms. In the first, the results of research on lesbian and gay parents are summarized. In the second section, a summary of results from research comparing children of lesbian and gay parents with those of heterosexual parents is presented.

The third section summarizes research on heterogeneity among lesbian and gay parents and their children. The How many communities are there in Tema? section provides a brief conclusion. The anomalous results reported by this study--which contradict the accumulated body of research findings in this field--are attributable to idiosyncrasies in its sample and methodologies and are therefore not reliable.

Indeed, although the differences Sarantakos observed among the children are anomalous in the context of research on parents' sexual orientation, they are highly consistent with findings from studies of the effects of parental divorce on children see, e. Children Australia is a regional journal that is not widely known outside Australia. As such, it cannot be considered a source upon which one should rely for understanding the state of scientific knowledge in this field, particularly when the results contradict those that have been repeatedly replicated in studies published in better known scientific journals.

In summary, the Sarantakos study does not undermine the consistent pattern of results reported in other empirical studies addressing this topic. Some nonscientific organizations have attempted to convince courts that there is an actual scientific dispute in this area by citing research performed by Paul Cameron as supporting the existence of deficits in gay and lesbian parents or their children compared to heterosexual parents or their children.

In fact, there is no scientific evidence of such deficits. Cameron's research is methodologically suspect. His key findings in this area have not been replicated and are contradicted by the reputable published research.

Unlike research that makes a contribution to science, his key findings and conclusions have rarely been cited by subsequent scientific studies published in peer-reviewed journals as informing their scientific inquiry. For a detailed critique of the research project on which Cameron has based many of his published papers, see Herek 1998.

Mental Health of Lesbians and Gay Men The psychiatric, psychological, and social work professions do not consider homosexual orientation to be a mental disorder.

In 1975, the American Psychological Association took the same position and urged all mental health professionals to help dispel the stigma of mental illness that had long been associated with homosexual orientation American Psychological Association, 1975. The National Association of Social Workers has a similar policy National Association of Social Workers, 1994.

There is no reliable evidence that homosexual orientation per se impairs psychological functioning, although the social and other circumstances in which lesbians and gay men live, including exposure to widespread prejudice and discrimination, often cause acute distress Cochran, 2001; Freedman, 1971; Gonsiorek, 1991; Hart et al.

Lesbian and heterosexual women have not been found to differ markedly either in their overall mental health or in their approaches to child rearing Bos et al. Similarly, lesbians' romantic and sexual relationships with other women have not been found to detract from their ability to care for their children Bos et al. Lesbian couples who are parenting together have most often been found to divide household and family labor relatively evenly and to report satisfaction with their couple relationships Bos et How many communities are there in Tema?.

The results of some studies suggest that lesbian mothers' and gay fathers' parenting skills may be superior to those of matched heterosexual couples. For instance, Flaks, Fischer, Masterpasqua, and Joseph 1995 reported that lesbian couples' parenting awareness skills were stronger than those of heterosexual couples.

This was attributed to greater parenting awareness among lesbian nonbiological mothers than among heterosexual fathers. On the contrary, results of research suggest that lesbian and gay parents are as likely as heterosexual parents to provide supportive home environments for children. Patterson, PhD In addition to judicial concerns about lesbian and gay parents themselves, courts have voiced three major fears about the influence of lesbian and gay parents on children.

The first of these fears is that development of sexual identity will be impaired among children of lesbian and gay parents. For example, courts have expressed fears that children in the custody of gay or lesbian parents will be more vulnerable to mental breakdown, will exhibit more adjustment difficulties and behavior problems, and will be less psychologically healthy than other children. For example, judges have repeatedly expressed concern that children living with lesbian mothers or gay fathers may be stigmatized, teased, or otherwise victimized by peers.

Another common fear is that children living with gay or lesbian parents may be more likely to be sexually abused by the parent or by the parent's friends or acquaintances. In the following I will address each of these areas of concern. Research relevant to each of these three major areas of concern is summarized below. There was no evidence in any of the studies of gender identity of any difficulties among children of lesbian mothers. No data have been reported in this area for children of gay fathers.

A number of studies have reported that gender-role behavior among children of lesbian mothers fell within typical limits for conventional sex roles Brewaeys et al. For instance, Kirkpatrick and her colleagues 1981 found no differences between children of lesbian versus heterosexual mothers in toy preferences, activities, interests, or occupational choices.

Children of lesbian and heterosexual mothers did not differ on masculinity or on androgyny, but children of lesbian mothers reported greater psychological femininity than did those of heterosexual mothers.

This result would seem to run counter to expectations based on stereotypes of lesbians as lacking in femininity, both in their own demeanor and in their likely influences on children. Gender-role behavior of children was also assessed by Green and his colleagues 1986. In interviews with the children, no differences between the 56 children of lesbian and 48 children of heterosexual mothers were found with respect to favorite television programs, favorite television characters, or favorite games or toys.

There was some indication in interviews with children themselves that the offspring of lesbian mothers had less sex-typed preferences for activities at school and in their neighborhoods than did children of heterosexual mothers. In both family types, however, children's sex-role behavior was seen as falling within the expected range. More recently, Brewaeys and her colleagues 1997 assessed gender-role behavior among 30, 4- to 8-year-old children who had been conceived via donor insemination by lesbian couples, and compared it to that of 30 same-aged children who had been conceived via donor insemination by heterosexual couples, and to that of 30 same-aged children who had been naturally conceived How many communities are there in Tema?

heterosexual couples. They found no significant differences between children of lesbian and children of heterosexual parents on preferences for gendered toys, games, and activities Brewaeys et al. In summary, the research suggests that children of lesbian mothers develop patterns of gender-role behavior that are much like those of other children. No data are available regarding gender-role behavior for children of gay fathers. In all studies, the great majority of offspring of both lesbian mothers and gay fathers described themselves as heterosexual.

Taken together, the data do not suggest elevated rates of homosexuality among the offspring of lesbian or gay parents. For instance, Huggins 1989 interviewed 36 adolescents, half of whom had lesbian mothers and half of whom had heterosexual mothers. No children of lesbian mothers identified themselves as lesbian or gay, but one child of a heterosexual mother did; this difference was not statistically significant.

In another study, Bailey and his colleagues 1995 studied adult sons of gay fathers and found more than 90% of the sons to be heterosexual. Golombok and Tasker 1996, 1997 studied 25 young adults reared by divorced lesbian mothers and 21 young adults reared by divorced heterosexual mothers. They reported that offspring of lesbian mothers were no more likely than those of heterosexual mothers to describe themselves as feeling attracted to same-sex sexual partners.

If they were attracted in this way, however, young adults with lesbian mothers were more likely to report that they would consider entering into a same-sex sexual relationship, and they were more likely to have actually participated in such a relationship. They were not, however, more likely to identify themselves as non-heterosexual i. These results were based on a small sample, and they must be interpreted with caution.

At How many communities are there in Tema? same time, the study is the first to follow children of divorced lesbian mothers into adulthood, and it offers a detailed and careful examination of important issues. Other Aspects of Personal Development Studies of other aspects of personal development among children of lesbian and How many communities are there in Tema?

parents have assessed a broad array of characteristics. Among these have been separation-individuation Steckel, 1985, 1987psychiatric evaluations Golombok et al. As was the case for sexual identity, studies of these aspects of personal development have revealed no major differences between children of lesbian versus heterosexual mothers.

One statistically significant difference in self-concept emerged in Patterson's 1994a study: Children of lesbian mothers reported greater symptoms of stress but also a greater overall sense of well-being than did children in a comparison group Patterson, 1994a ; but this result has yet to be replicated. Overall, the belief that children of lesbian and gay parents suffer deficits in personal development has no empirical foundation.

Social Relationships Studies assessing potential differences between children of lesbian and gay parents, on the one hand, and children of heterosexual parents, on the other, have sometimes included assessments of children's social relationships.

The most common focus of attention has been on peer relations, but some information about children's relationships with adults has also been collected. Research findings that address the likelihood of sexual abuse are also summarized in this section.

Research on peer relations among children of lesbian mothers has been reported by Golombok and her colleagues 1983, 1997by Green and his colleagues 1978, 1986and by Patterson 1994a. Reports by both parents and children suggest typical patterns of development of peer relationships.

For example, as would be expected, most school-aged children reported same-sex best friends and predominantly same-sex peer groups Golombok et al. The quality of children's peer relations was described, on average, in positive terms by researchers Golombok et al.

Although some children have described encounters with anti-gay remarks from peers Gartrell et al. No data on the children of gay fathers have been reported in this area. Studies of the relationships with adults among the children of lesbian and gay parents have also resulted in a generally positive picture Brewaeys et al. For example, adolescent relationships with their parents have been described as equally warm and caring, regardless of whether parents have How many communities are there in Tema?

or opposite-sex partners Wainright et al. Golombok and her colleagues 1983 found that children of divorced lesbian mothers were more likely to have had recent contact with their fathers than were children of divorced heterosexual mothers.

Another study, however, found no differences in this regard Kirkpatrick et al. Research has also focused on children's contacts with members of the extended family, especially grandparents. Parents are often facilitators and gatekeepers of contact between generations in families. Because grandparents are generally seen as supportive of their grandchildren, any strains in parents' relationships with grandparents might have adverse effects on the frequency of children's contacts with grandparents, and hence also have a negative impact on grandchildren's development.

Their findings revealed that most children of lesbian mothers were described as being in regular contact with grandparents Patterson et al. In a recent study based on a systematic sampling frame in which lesbian and heterosexual parent families were well-matched on demographic characteristics, there were no differences in the frequency of contact with grandparents as a function of parental sexual orientation Fulcher et al. Gartrell and her colleagues 2000 have also reported that grandparents were very likely to acknowledge the children of lesbian daughters as grandchildren.

Thus, available evidence suggests that, contrary to popular concerns, intergenerational relationships in lesbian mother families are satisfactory. Children's contacts with adult friends of their lesbian mothers have also been assessed Fulcher et al. All of the children were described as having contact with adult friends of their mothers, and most lesbian mothers reported that their adult friends were a mixture of homosexual and heterosexual individuals.

Children of lesbian mothers were no less likely than those of heterosexual mothers to be in contact with adult men who were friends of their mothers Fulcher et al. Concerns that children of lesbian or gay parents are more likely than children of heterosexual parents to be sexually abused have also been addressed. There are few published reports relevant to the issue of sexual abuse of children living How many communities are there in Tema?

custody of lesbian or gay parents. A recent study did, however, find that none of the lesbian mothers participating in a longitudinal study had abused their children Gartrell et al. Fears that children in custody of lesbian or gay parents might be at heightened risk for sexual abuse are without basis in the research literature. Summary Results of research to date suggest that children of lesbian and gay parents have positive relationships with peers and that their relationships with adults of both sexes are also satisfactory.

The picture of lesbian mothers' children that emerges is one of general engagement in social life with peers, with fathers, with grandparents, and with mothers' adult friends-both male and female, both heterosexual and homosexual.

Fears about children of lesbians and gay men being sexually abused by adults, ostracized by peers, or isolated in single-sex lesbian or gay communities have received no support from the results of existing research.

Patterson, PhD Despite the tremendous diversity evident within lesbian and gay communities, research on differences among lesbian and gay families with children is sparse. One important kind of heterogeneity involves the circumstances of children's birth or adoption. Some men and women have had children in the context of a heterosexual relationship that split up after one or both parents assumed lesbian or gay identities.

Much of the existing research on lesbian mothers, gay fathers, and their children was initiated to address concerns that arose for such families in the context of child custody disputes, and was apparently designed at least in part to examine the veracity of common stereotypes that have been voiced in legal proceedings. A growing number of men and women have also had children after assuming lesbian or gay identities.

Recently, research has begun to address issues relevant to families of this type Brewaeys et al. Parents and children in these two kinds of families are likely to have experiences that differ in many respects Wright, 1998.

In this section, research findings are described on the impact of parental psychological and relationship status and on the influence of other stresses and supports. One area of diversity among lesbian and gay parented families concerns whether or not the custodial parent is involved in a couple relationship, and if so, what implications this relationship may have for children.

Pagelow 1980Kirkpatrick et al. However, none of these investigators examined associations between this variable and children's adjustment or development. In studies that have compared adjustment of mothers and children in single- versus two-parent lesbian parent families e. Huggins 1989 reported that self-esteem among daughters of lesbian mothers whose lesbian partners lived with them was higher than that among daughters of lesbian mothers who did not live with a partner. Because of the small sample size and the absence of statistical tests, this finding should be seen as suggestive rather than conclusive.

On the other hand, self-concept did not vary as a function of family type in another study Patterson, 1994athough the failure to find differences in this case may have been due to lack of statistical power, as the number of single-parent families in this sample was small.

Issues related to division of family and household labor have also been studied. In families headed by lesbian couples, Patterson 1995a found that biological and nonbiological mothers did not differ in their reported involvement in household and family decision-making tasks, but biological mothers reported spending more time in child care, and nonbiological mothers reported spending more time in paid employment.

In families where mothers reported sharing child care duties relatively evenly, parents were more satisfied and children were better adjusted. Thus, equal sharing of child care duties was associated with more advantageous outcomes both for parents and for children in this study.

Lesbian and gay parenting: Theoretical and conceptual examinations

In more recent studies, however, differences between biological and nonbiological mothers have not always been significant, and the associations between parental division of labor and child adjustment have not always been replicated see, for example, Chan et al. Another aspect of diversity among lesbian and gay parented families relates to the psychological status and well-being of the parent.

Research on parent-child relations in heterosexual parent families has consistently revealed that children's adjustment is often related to indices of maternal mental health. Thus, one might expect factors that enhance mental health among lesbian mothers or gay fathers also to benefit their children.

Lott-Whitehead and Tully 1993 reported considerable variability in the amounts of stress described by lesbian mothers, but did not describe sources of stress nor their relations to child adjustment.

Rand, Graham, and Rawlings 1982 found that lesbian mothers' sense of psychological well-being was associated with their degree of openness about their lesbian identity with employers, ex-husbands, and children. Mothers who felt more able to disclose their lesbian identity were more likely to express a positive sense of well-being.

Unfortunately, no information about the relations of these findings to adjustment among children of these women was reported. More recently, Patterson 2001 reported that maternal mental health was strongly associated with adjustment among young children born to, or adopted early in life, by lesbian mothers.

In general, mothers who reported few psychological symptoms also described their children as better adjusted. The mothers in this sample reported being relatively open about their lesbian identities, and most were in good mental health. The sample was thus skewed toward the healthy end of the distribution. In light of the moderate sample size 66 mothers and restricted range, it is especially noteworthy that associations between maternal mental health and children's adjustment emerged so clearly.

Like other children and youth, those with lesbian mothers who enjoy warm and caring family relationships are likely to fare better. Chan and his colleagues 1998b reported that children had fewer behavior problems when parents were experiencing less stress, having fewer interparental conflicts, and feeling greater love for one another. This was true both for children of lesbian and for those of heterosexual parents in their sample. In a similar vein, Wainright and her colleagues 2004 reported that, when parents rated the quality of their relationships with adolescents higher, youth were less likely to report depressive symptoms, and were also less likely to have trouble at school; again, this was true both of adolescents with same-sex and of those with opposite-sex parents.

Another area of great diversity among families with a lesbian or gay parent concerns the degree to which a parent's lesbian or gay identity is accepted by other significant people in a child's life. Huggins 1989 found a tendency for children whose fathers were rejecting of maternal lesbian identities to report lower self-esteem than those whose fathers were neutral or positive. Because of the small sample size and absence of significance tests, this finding should be regarded as suggestive rather than definitive.

However, Huggins' 1989 finding does raise questions about the extent to which reactions of important adults in a child's environment can influence responses to discovery of a parent's lesbian or gay identity.

They conducted interviews with 76 adolescents, aged 11-18 years, and examined the impact of societal factors on self-esteem. Gershon and her colleagues found that adolescents who perceived more stigmas related to having a lesbian mother had lower self-esteem in five of seven areas, including social acceptance, self-worth, behavioral conduct, physical appearance, and close friendship.

They hypothesized that the presence of various types of coping skills would moderate this relationship between perceived stigma and self-esteem. However, their results showed that only good decision making had a moderating effect: In the face of high perceived stigma, adolescents possessing better decision-making skills had higher self-esteem in the area of behavioral conduct. In a study of children born to lesbian mothers, Gartrell and her colleagues 2005 reported that 10-year-olds who encountered anti-gay sentiments among their peers were likely to report having felt angry, upset, or sad about these experiences.

The children who reported such experiences were somewhat more likely to be described by their mothers as having behavior problems Gartrell et al. This latter finding suggests the possibility that children of lesbian and gay parents may fare better in supportive environments.

In view of the small effect size and absence of data from sources outside the family, however, this result should probably be viewed as suggestive rather than definitive at this time. Effects of the age at which children learn of parental homosexuality have also been a topic of study. Paul 1986 reported that offspring who were told of parental lesbian, gay, or bisexual identity either in childhood or in late adolescence found the news easier to cope with than those who first learned of it during early to middle adolescence.

Huggins 1989 also reported that those who learned of maternal lesbianism in childhood had higher self-esteem than did those who were not informed of it until they were adolescents. Because young adolescents are often preoccupied with their own emerging sexuality, it is widely agreed that early adolescence is a particularly difficult time for youth to learn that a mother is lesbian or a father is gay Bozett, 1980; Pennington, 1987; Schulenberg, 1985.

Some investigators have also raised questions about the potential role of peer support in helping children to cope with issues raised by having a lesbian or gay parent. Lewis 1980 was the first to suggest that children's silence on the topic of parental sexual orientation with peers and siblings might add to their feelings of isolation from other children.

All of the 11 adolescents studied by O'Connell 1993 reported exercising selectivity about when they disclosed information about their mothers' lesbian identities. Paul 1986 found that 29% of his young adult respondents had never known anyone else with a lesbian, gay, or bisexual parent, suggesting that feelings of isolation are very real for some young people. Barrett and Tasker 2001 reported that most of the adolescents with gay fathers in their study were not open with heterosexual friends about their fathers' sexual orientation.

On the other hand, Gartrell and her colleagues 2005 reported that most of the 10-year-olds with lesbian mothers whom they interviewed were open with peers about their families. It is possible that, over the last several years, and in some environments, it has become easier for children to feel comfortable disclosing that they have nonheterosexual parents.

Lewis 1980 suggested that children would benefit from support groups consisting of children of lesbian or gay parents, and young people interviewed by O'Connell 1993 agreed. Such groups exist, but systematic evaluations of them have not been reported.

Data on children of parents who identify as bisexual are still not available, and information about children of non-White lesbian or gay parents is hard to find but see Wainright et al. Existing data on children of lesbian mothers, however, suggest that children fare better when mothers are in good psychological health and living happily with a lesbian partner with whom they share child care.

Existing data also suggest the value of a supportive milieu, in which parental How many communities are there in Tema? orientation is accepted by other significant adults and in which children have contact with peers in similar circumstances. However, the existing data are still limited, and any conclusions must be seen as tentative.

It is clear that existing research provides no basis for believing that children's best interests are served by family conflict or secrecy about a parent's lesbian or gay identity, or by requirements that a lesbian or gay parent maintain a household separate from that of a same-sex partner. Patterson, PhD In summary, there is no evidence to suggest that lesbian women or gay men are unfit to be parents or that psychosocial development among children of lesbian women or gay men is compromised relative to that among offspring of heterosexual parents.

Not a single study has found children of lesbian or gay parents to be disadvantaged in any significant respect relative to children of heterosexual parents. Indeed, the evidence to date suggests that home environments provided by lesbian and gay How many communities are there in Tema?

are as likely as those provided by heterosexual parents to support and enable children's psychosocial growth. It should be acknowledged that research on lesbian and gay parents and their children, though no longer new, is still limited in extent.

Although studies of gay fathers and their children have been conducted Patterson, 2004less is known about children of gay fathers than about children of lesbian mothers. Although studies of adolescent and young adult offspring of lesbian and gay parents are available e. Although more diverse samples have been included in recent studies e. Although two longitudinal studies have been reported Gartrell et al.

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Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 24, 551-572. Do parents influence the sexual orientation of their children? Findings from a longitudinal study of lesbian families. Children raised in fatherless families from infancy: Family relationships and the socioemotional development of children of lesbian and single heterosexual mothers.

Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 783-791. The empirical basis for the demise of How many communities are there in Tema? illness model of homosexuality. Children of gay and lesbian parents. New York: Harrington Park Press. The velveteen father: An unexpected journey to parenthood. Sexual identity of 37 children raised by homosexual or transsexual parents.

American Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 692-697. Lesbian mothers and their children: A comparison with solo parent heterosexual mothers and their children.

Archives of Sexual Behavior, 7, 175-181. Adult sexual orientation and attraction to underage persons. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 7, 175-181. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Professional School of Psychology, San Francisco.

How many communities are there in Tema? of Homosexuality, 12, 101-113. Psychological adjustment of nonpatient homosexuals: Critical review of the research literature. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 39, 604-608. Psychological heterosexism in the United States. New York: Oxford University Press. Bad science in the service of stigma: How many communities are there in Tema?

critique of the Cameron group's survey studies. Children's acquisition of sex-role behavior in lesbian-mother families. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 5, 536-544. The adjustment of the male overt homosexual. Journal of Projective Techniques, 21, 17-31. Out of the ordinary: Essays on growing up with lesbian, gay, and transgender parents. A comparative study of self-esteem of adolescent children of divorced lesbian mothers and divorced heterosexual mothers.

New York: Harrington Park Press. Are children at risk for sexual abuse by homosexuals? The gay baby boom: The psychology of gay parenthood.

New York: New York University Press. Sexual abuse of children: Selected readings. Long way home: The odyssey of a lesbian mother and her children. College students' perceptual stigmatization of the children of lesbian mothers. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 69, 220-227. Clinical implications of lesbian mother studies. Journal of Homosexuality, 13, 201-211. Lesbian mothers and their children: A comparative survey. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 51, 545-551.

The impact of parental homosexuality in child custody cases: A review of the literature. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 14, 81-87. Relationship quality in a sample of lesbian couples with children and child-free lesbian couples.

Heterosexual and homosexual mothers' self-described sex-role behavior and ideal sex-role behavior in children. Children of lesbians: Their point of view. The family lives of lesbian mothers. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 63, 265-280. Women and Therapy, 2, 231-240. The lesbian and gay parenting handbook: Creating and raising our families. Clinical issues in psychotherapy with lesbian- gay- and bisexual-parented families.

New York: Oxford University Press. Against all odds: Lesbian mother family dynamics. Heterosexual undergraduates' attitudes toward gay fathers and their children. J ournal of Psychology and Human Sexuality, 11, 43-62.

Gay parenting couples: Parenting arrangements, arrangement satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Pacific Graduate School of Psychology. Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129 5674-697.

Gay fathers and their children. The child's home environment for lesbian versus heterosexual mothers: A neglected area of research. Journal of Homosexuality, 7, 49-56. Man and woman, boy and girl: The How many communities are there in Tema?

and dimorphism of gender identity from conception to maturity. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Getting Simon: Two gay doctors' journey to fatherhood. Lesbian and bisexual mothers and nonmothers: Demographics and the coming-out process. Journal of Family Psychology, 16, 144-156. Lesbian and traditional mothers' responses to adult responses to child behavior and self concept.

National Association of Social Workers. Policy statement on lesbian and gay issues. Voices from the heart: The developmental impact of a mother's lesbianism on her adolescent children. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 63, 281-299. My stepfather is a she. Correlates of relationship satisfaction in lesbian couples who are parenting their first child together. Heterosexual and lesbian single mothers: A comparison of problems, coping, and solutions.

Journal of Homosexuality, 5, 198-204. Lesbian parenthood: A review of the literature. American Journal of How many communities are there in Tema?, 68, 376-389. Children of lesbian and gay parents. Children of the lesbian baby boom: Behavioral adjustment, self-concepts, and sex-role identity. Lesbian and gay couples considering parenthood: An agenda for research, service, and advocacy.

Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 1, 33-55. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 3, 62-64. Families of the lesbian baby boom: Parents' division of labor and children's How many communities are there in Tema?. Lesbian mothers, gay fathers, and their children.

New York: Oxford University Press. Children of lesbian and gay parents. Family lives of children with lesbian mothers. New York: Oxford University Press. Family relationships of lesbians and gay men.

Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 1052- 1069. Families of the lesbian baby boom: Maternal mental health and child adjustment. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy, 4, 91-107. Gay fathers and their children. Children of lesbian and gay parents: Research, law, and policy. New York: Cambridge University Press. Families of the lesbian baby boom: Children's contact with grandparents and other adults. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68, 390-399. Lesbian and gay families with children: Implications of social science research for policy.

Journal of Social Issues, 52 329-50. Growing up with a gay, lesbian, or bisexual parent: An exploratory study of experiences and perceptions. Children whose parents are lesbian or gay. Sexual orientation in child and adolescent health care. Technical report: Coparent or second-parent adoption by same-sex parents. Politics of the heart: A lesbian parenting anthology.

A comparison between the children of lesbian mothers and the children of heterosexual mothers. Different mothers: Sons and daughters of lesbians talk about their lives. Psychological health and factors the court seeks to control in lesbian mother custody trials. Journal of Homosexuality, 8, 27-39. A comparison of children of lesbian and single heterosexual mothers on three measures of socialization.

An estimate of nationwide incidence of sexual offenses against children. Children in three contexts: Family, education, and social development. Children Australia, 21 323-31. The kid: What happened after my boyfriend and I decided to go get pregnant: An adoption story. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Department of Psychology, City University of New York. Gay parenting: A complete guide for gay men and lesbians with children.

The value of children to lesbian and non-lesbian mothers. Journal of Homosexuality, 39, How many communities are there in Tema?. How Does sexual orientation of parents matter? American Sociological Review, 65, 159-183. Separation-individuation in children of lesbian and heterosexual couples. Psychosocial development of children of lesbian mothers.

Overview of new developments in understanding homosexuality. Review of Psychiatry, 12, 9-40. Gender and family patterns of lesbian coparents. Gender and Society, 10, 747-767. Children in lesbian-led families-A review. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 4, 153-166. Adults raised as children in lesbian families. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 65, 203-215.

Growing up in a lesbian family. The role of co-mothers in planned lesbian-led families. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 2, 49-68. Personal adjustment of male and female homosexuals and heterosexuals. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 78, 237-240. Family functioning in lesbian families created by donor insemination.

American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 73, 78-90. Lesbian mothers and their children: A review for school psychologists. School Psychology Review, 24, 456-479. Psychosocial adjustment, school outcomes, and romantic relationships of adolescents with same-sex parents. The potential impact of homosexual parenting on children. University of Illinois Law Review, 833-919. Two cases of children of homosexuals. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 6, 26-32. Families we choose: Lesbians, gays, kinship.

New York: Columbia University Press. Lesbian stepfamilies: An ethnography of love. New York: Harrington Park Press. Annotated Bibliography The annotated bibliography includes all the publications cited in the research summary. A few of the annotations are original and are reprinted with permission from the previous edition of this publication. Sexual orientation of adult sons of gay fathers. The sexual development of children of gay and lesbian parents is interesting for both scientific and social reasons.

The present study is the largest to date to focus on the sexual orientation of adult sons of gay men. From advertisements in gay publications, 55 gay or bisexual men were recruited who reported on 82 sons at least 17 years of age.

More than 90% of sons whose sexual orientations could be rated were heterosexual. Furthermore, gay and heterosexual sons did not differ on potentially relevant variables such as the length of time they had lived with their fathers.

Results suggest that any environmental influence of gay fathers on their sons' sexual orientation is not large. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Growing up with a gay parent: Views of 101 gay fathers on their sons' and daughters' experiences.

Educational and Child Psychology, 18, 62-77. Within the context of a review of the literature on gay male parents and their children, preliminary findings are reported from a postal survey of gay parents recruited through advertisements for volunteers.

One hundred one gay and bisexual parents aged 25-75 yrs. Results appear to confirm previous findings concerning the diversity of parenting circumstances of gay and bisexual men. Men with cohabiting male partners reported themselves as successfully meeting a variety of parenting challenges.

While older children were more likely to know of their father's sexual identity, few gender differences were reported in response to this knowledge. Issues for further exploration are identified. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. The value of children to gay and heterosexual fathers. New York: Harrington Park Press.

Administered a value of children scale to 33 heterosexual fathers aged How many communities are there in Tema? yrs. Significant differences emerged only on the tradition-continuity-security and social status subscales. Homosexual How many communities are there in Tema? reported significant reasons motivating them to become parents.

Their marriage and family orientation reflected a traditional attitude toward family life and served to protect against societal rejection. While some subjects truly desired children and valued the role children play in their lives, some homosexual subjects had children mainly to attain some type of social status. All subjects tended to value children negatively. Copyright © 2004 by the American Psychological Association. Parenting behaviors of homosexual and heterosexual fathers.

New York: Harrington Park Press. Possible explanations for these similarities and differences in parenting styles are explored. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Planned lesbian families: Their desire and motivation to have children. Experience of parenthood, couple relationship, social support, and child-rearing goals in planned lesbian mother families. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 755-764.

The phenomenon of planned lesbian families is relatively new. The overall aim of this research was to examine whether planned lesbian mother families differ from heterosexual families on factors that are assumed to influence the parent-child relationship, such as experience of parenthood, child-rearing goals, couple relationship, and social support.

One hundred lesbian two-mother families were compared with 100 heterosexual families having naturally conceived children. A variety of measures were used to collect the data, including questionnaires and a diary of activities kept by the parents. Lesbian parents are no less competent or more burdened than heterosexual parents. Both lesbian and heterosexual parents consider it important to develop qualities of independence in their children.

Furthermore, lesbian social mothers feel more often than fathers in heterosexual families that they must justify the quality of their parenthood. There are few differences between lesbian couples and heterosexual couples, except that lesbian mothers appear less attuned to traditional child-rearing goals and lesbian social mothers appear more to defend their position as mother. Copyright © 2004 by the American Psychological Association.

Gay fathers: How and why they disclose their homosexuality to their children. Data collected by in-depth interviews reveal How many communities are there in Tema? many gay fathers disclose their homosexuality to their children. All but one subject reported that their children accepted them as homosexuals.

Often the disclosure had the effect of deepening the father-child relationship. Gay fathers tend to be discreet regarding the overt expression of their homosexuality in order to protect their children from other people's hostility. Some gay fathers do not disclose their homosexuality to their children. Nondisclosure may cause the father considerable stress, depending upon the intimacy of the father-child relationship and the centrality of the father identity to the man.

Reprinted with permission of National Council on Family Relations. Donor insemination: Child development and family functioning in lesbian mother families. Copyright © 1997 by European Society of Human Reproduction and Embriology. Division of labor among lesbian and heterosexual parents: Associations with children's adjustment. Journal of Family Psychology, 12, 402-419. This study compared lesbian and heterosexual parents' division of household labor, satisfaction with division of labor, satisfaction with couple relationships, and associations of these variables with psychological adjustment of children.

Although both lesbian and heterosexual couples reported relatively equal divisions of paid employment and of household and decision-making tasks, lesbian biological and nonbiological mothers shared child-care tasks more equally than did heterosexual parents. Among lesbian nonbiological mothers, those more satisfied with the division of family decisions in the home were also more satisfied with their relationships and had children who exhibited fewer externalizing behavior problems.

The effect of division of labor on children's adjustment was mediated by parents' relationship satisfaction. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Psychosocial adjustment among children conceived via donor insemination by lesbian and heterosexual mothers. Examined the relationships among family structure e. The 80 participating families, all of whom had conceived children using the resources of a single sperm bank, included 55 families headed by lesbian and 25 families headed by heterosexual parents.

Fifty families were headed by couples How many communities are there in Tema? 30 by single parents. Participating children averaged 7 years of age.

Results show that children were developing in a normal fashion and that their adjustment was unrelated to structural variables, such as parental sexual orientation or the number of parents in the household. These results held true for teacher reports as well as for parent reports. Variables associated with family interactions and processes were, however, significantly related to indices of children's adjustment. Parents who were experiencing higher How many communities are there in Tema?

of parenting stress, higher levels of interparental conflict, and lower levels of love for each other had children who exhibited more behavior problems. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Journal of Homosexuality, 43, 1-13. Explored how 18 lesbian adoptive parents, 49 lesbian parents who formed their families biologically, and 44 heterosexual adoptive parents experience and perceive their parenting role, how they respond when their children seek them How many communities are there in Tema?

their partner for particular nurturing, and how the parents negotiate the cultural expectation of a primary caregiver.

Lesbian couples were more equal in their division of child care than heterosexual parents, and lesbian adoptive parents were the most egalitarian. In all types of dual-parent families, parents were sought by their child for different activities. In heterosexual adoptive and lesbian biological families, the child's parental preference was rarely a source of conflict between partners.

Lesbian adoptive parents were more likely to report that this preference caused occasional conflict. Reasons for this conflict are discussed in light of societal expectations of women and the role of mother. Copyright © 2003 by the American Psychological Association. Psychologists' attitudes toward gay and lesbian parenting. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 30, 394-401. How does the average practicing psychologist view a gay or lesbian couple wishing to adopt a child?

The vignettes were identical except that the couples' sexual orientation was depicted as gay male, lesbian, or heterosexual, and the child was either a girl or boy.

Results indicated that participants who rated the gay male and lesbian couples with a female child were less How many communities are there in Tema? to recommend custody for these couples than participants who rated the heterosexual couples. Before psychologists provide mental health services to gay and lesbian people and their children, they should complete formal, systematic training on sexual diversity.

Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Lesbians choosing motherhood: A comparative study of lesbian and heterosexual parents and their children. Compared 15 lesbian couples and the 3- to 9-year-old children born to them through donor insemination with 15 matched, heterosexual-parent families. A variety of assessment measures were used to evaluate the children's cognitive functioning and behavioral adjustment as well as the parents' relationship quality and parenting skills.

Results revealed no significant differences between the two groups of children, who also compared favorably with the standardization samples for the instruments used. In addition, no significant differences were found between dyadic adjustment of lesbian and heterosexual couples. Only in the area of parenting did the two groups of couples differ: Lesbian couples exhibited more parenting awareness skills than did heterosexual couples.

The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Contact with grandparents among children conceived via donor insemination by lesbian and heterosexual mothers.

Parenting: Science and Practice, 2, 61-76. This study compared the networks of extended family and friendship relationships of children conceived via donor insemination with lesbian versus heterosexual parents. Eighty families participated; 55 of the families were headed by lesbian parents and 25 were headed by heterosexual parents. Parents reported their children's contact with grandparents and other important adults.

Most children had regular contact with grandparents, other relatives, and adult nonrelatives outside their immediate households, and there were no differences in this regard as a function of parental sexual orientation.

Both children of lesbian and heterosexual parents had more frequent contact with the parents of their biological mother than with the parents of their father or other mother. Contrary to negative stereotypes, children of lesbian mothers were described as having regular contact with grandparents.

Regardless of parental sexual orientation, children were described as being in more frequent contact with grandparents to whom they were biologically linked. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. The National Lesbian Family Study: 3. Interviews with mothers of five-year-olds. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70 4542-548. This third report from a longitudinal study of lesbian families presents data obtained from interviews with mothers aged 29-47 yrs.

Results indicate that 87% of the children related well to peers, 18% had experienced homophobia from peers or teachers, and 63% had grandparents who frankly acknowledged their grandchild's lesbian family. Of the original couples, 31% had divorced. Of the remainder, 68% felt that their child was equally bonded to both mothers. Concerns of lesbian families are discussed.

Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. The National Lesbian Family Study: 2. Interviews with mothers of toddlers. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 69 3362-369. As part How many communities are there in Tema? a longitudinal study of lesbian families in which the children were conceived by donor insemination, interviews were conducted with 156 mothers and co-mothers aged 26-51 yrs. Topics covered in the interviews included health concerns, parenting, family structure, relationships, time management, and discrimination.

Results yielded the following data: Most couples shared parenting equally, the majority felt closer to their family of origin, adoptive co-mothers felt greater legitimacy as parents, biology and nurture received the same ratings for mother-child bonding, and political and How many communities are there in Tema? action had increased among many participants. The impact of these findings and that of homophobia on lesbian family life are discussed.

Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. The National Lesbian Family Study: 4. Interviews with the 10-year-old children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 75 4 518-524. This fourth report from a longitudinal study of U. Results indicate that the prevalence of physical and sexual abuse in these children was lower than national norms. In social and psychological development, the children were comparable to children raised in heterosexual families.

Children of unknown donors were indistinguishable from those with known donors in psychological adjustment. Fifty-seven percent of the children were completely out to their peers, and 43% had experienced homophobia.

The children demonstrated a sophisticated understanding of diversity and tolerance. Copyright © 2005 by the American Psychological Association. The National Lesbian Family Study: 1. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 66 2272-281. Provides the initial interview data from a longitudinal, 25-year study on demographic characteristics, parental relationships, social supports, pregnancy motivations and preferences, stigmatization concerns, and coping strategies of 84 lesbian families aged 23-49 yrs.

Results show subjects were predominately White, college educated, middle or upper-middle class, and Jewish or Christian. Subjects are strongly lesbian-identified, have close relationships with friends and extended families, have established flexible work schedules for child rearing, are well educated about the potential difficulties of raising a child in a lesbian household, and have access to appropriate support groups. Results also show that the prospective children are highly desired and thoughtfully conceived.

Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Stigmatization, self-esteem, and coping among the adolescent children of lesbian mothers. Journal of Adolescent Health, 24, 437-445. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Do parents influence the sexual orientation of their children? Findings from a longitudinal study of lesbian families. How many communities are How many communities are there in Tema? in Tema? are presented of a longitudinal study of the sexual orientation of adults who had been raised as children in lesbian families.

Twenty-five children of lesbian mothers and a control group of 21 children of heterosexual single mothers were first seen at age 9. Standardized interviews were used to obtain data on sexual orientation from the young adults in the follow-up study and on family characteristics and children's gender role behavior from the mothers and their children in the initial study.

Although those from lesbian families were more likely to explore same-sex relationships, particularly if their childhood family environment was characterized by an openness and acceptance of lesbian and gay relationships, the large majority of children who grew up in lesbian families identified as heterosexual. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Children with lesbian parents: A community study.

How many communities are there in Tema?

Existing research on children with lesbian parents is limited by reliance on volunteer or convenience samples. The present study examined the quality of parent-child relationships and the socioemotional and gender development of a community sample How many communities are there in Tema?

7-year-old children with lesbian parents. Families were recruited through the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a geographic population study of 14,000 mothers and their children. Findings are in line with those of earlier investigations showing positive mother-child relationships and well-adjusted children. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. The Pre-School Activities Inventory: A standardized assessment of gender role in children. Psychological Assessment, 5 2131-136.

Its design and test specification are reported, and the piloting and item analysis are described. Evidence of reliability is given, and How many communities are there in Tema? validation studies are reported, as are data on age standardization and norming. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Children in lesbian and single-parent households: Psychosexual and psychiatric appraisal. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 24, 551-572.

Compared the psychosexual development, emotions, behavior, and relationships of 37 children aged 5-17 yrs. Systematic standardized interviews with the mothers and with the children, together with parent and teacher questionnaires, were used to make the psychosexual and psychiatric assessments. The two groups did not differ in terms of their gender How many communities are there in Tema?, sex-role behavior, or sexual orientation.

Also, they did not differ on most measures of emotions, behavior, and relationships, although How many communities are there in Tema? was some indication of more frequent psychiatric problems in the single-parent group. It is concluded that rearing in a lesbian household per se does not lead to atypical psychosexual development or constitute a psychiatric risk factor.

Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Children raised in fatherless families from infancy: Family relationships and the socioemotional development of children of lesbian How many communities are there in Tema?

single heterosexual mothers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 783-791. Investigated family functioning and the psychological development of children aged 3-9 yrs. Thirty lesbian mother families and 42 families headed by a single heterosexual mother were compared with 41 two-parent heterosexual families using standardized interview and questionnaire measures of the quality of parenting and the socioemotional development of the child.

Results show that children raised in fatherless families from infancy experienced greater warmth and interaction with their mother and were more securely attached to her, although they perceived themselves to be less cognitively and physically competent than their peers from father-present families.

No differences were identified between families headed by lesbian and single heterosexual mothers, except for greater mother-child interaction in lesbian mother families. It seems that children raised in fatherless families from birth or early infancy are not disadvantaged in terms of either the quality of their relationship with their mother or their emotional well-being. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Sexual identity of 37 children raised by homosexual or transsexual parents.

American Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 692-697. Lesbian mothers and their children: A comparison with solo parent heterosexual mothers and their children. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 7, 175-181. Compared the sexual identity and social relationships of 30 daughters and 26 sons aged 3-11 yrs. Mothers were currently unmarried White women aged 25-46 years.

In addition to age and race, mothers were matched on length of separation from father; educational level and income; and number, age, and sex of children. Subjects were from rural and urban areas in 10 U. Data from children's tests on intelligence, core-morphologic sexual identity, gender-role preferences, family and peer group relationships, and adjustment to the single-parent family indicate that there were How many communities are there in Tema?

significant differences between the two types of households for boys and few significant differences for girls. Data also reveal more similarities than differences in parenting experiences, marital history, and present living situations of the two groups of mothers.

It is suggested that the mother's sexual orientation per se should not enter into considerations on parental fitness that are commonly asserted in child custody cases. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Professional School of Psychology, San Francisco. Journal of Homosexuality, 12, 101-113. Conducted an anonymous survey of 23 male and female homosexual parents aged 29-53 yrs. Both sets of parents reported relatively few serious problems and generally positive relationships with their children, with only a minority encouraging sex-typed toys, activities, and playmates.

Heterosexual parents made a greater effort to provide an opposite-sex role model for their children. Homosexual parents saw a number of benefits and relatively few problems for their children, with females perceiving greater benefits than males. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Children's acquisition of sex-role behavior in lesbian-mother families.

American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 5, 536-544. A comparative study of self-esteem of adolescent children of divorced lesbian mothers and divorced heterosexual mothers. New York: Harrington Park Press. Administered the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory to nine sons and nine daughters aged 13-19 yrs.

Copyright © 2004 by the American Psychological Association. The gay baby boom: The psychology of gay parenthood. New York: New York University Press. College students' perceptual stigmatization of the children of lesbian mothers.

American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 69, 220-227. To ascertain the extent to which children of lesbian mothers are stigmatized, 338 undergraduate students were asked to complete a child behavior checklist for a hypothetical child of either a divorced lesbian or a divorced heterosexual mother. Respondents attributed more problematic behavior in a variety of domains to the child of the lesbian mother, although this stigmatization was not compounded if lesbian mothers were depicted as living with adult female partners.

Implications for child custody determinations and How many communities are there in Tema? research are considered. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Lesbian mothers and their children: A comparative survey. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 51, 545-551. Subjects' gender development was not identifiably different in the two groups.

Prevalence of disturbance was not found to be a function of the mother's sexual choice. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Relationship quality in a sample of lesbian couples with children and child-free lesbian couples. Examined the quality of lesbian relationships by three factors: presence of children, extent of disclosure concerning the nature of the relationship, and longevity of the relationship. Forty-seven lesbian couples aged 21-66 yrs. Overall, findings indicate that solid and happy relationships existed for the total sample of couples.

However, couples with children soared significantly higher on relationship satisfaction and sexual relationship. No differences were found by longevity of the relationship or disclosure. Implications for family life educators and family practitioners are discussed.

Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Heterosexual and homosexual mothers' self-described sex-role behavior and ideal sex-role behavior in children.

No significant differences were found.

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Results show subjects' self-described sex-role behavior to be a better indicator of desired sex-role behavior in children than subjects' sexual orientation.

Similarities in sex-role behavior and attitudes of heterosexual and homosexual mothers far outweighed the present subjects' differences when determined by self-description and attitudes toward ideal child behavior. Copyright © 2002 by the American How many communities are there in Tema? Association. Children of lesbians: Their point of view. Interviews with 21 children of lesbians in greater Boston area, ranging in age from 9 to 26, identified several major issues.

Problems experienced involved parents' divorce and disclosure of mother's homosexuality. Problems between mother and children were secondary to the issue of children's respect for difficult step she had taken.

The family lives of lesbian mothers. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 63, 265-280. Studied the family lives of 45 adult lesbians who were also parents. Subjects responded to a questionnaire consisting of closed- and open-ended items that elicited responses on a broad range of topics related to family life. Findings revealed that the subjects were aware of the impact of their sexual orientation on their children, that they were vigilant about maintaining the integrity of their families, and that the stress they felt was buffered by social support networks.

Some subjects noted that a sector of the lesbian community itself was unsupportive of lesbian motherhood. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Women and Therapy, 2, 231-240. Conducted a comparative study between 1977 and 1981 of both lesbian and heterosexual mothers, focusing on the different kinds of support systems that they employ to meet both emotional and material needs for themselves and their children.

Forty-three lesbian and 37 heterosexual formerly married mothers were studied. One half of lesbian subjects and one third of heterosexual subjects lived with partners.

Results show no differences between the groups in social support systems and relationships with ex-husbands. Motherhood was a primary part of self-identity for all subjects. Fear of loss of custody was a How many communities are there in Tema? theme for lesbian mothers and was the only major difference between the groups.

Court-awarded custody is never final and can be challenged from a number of sources. Lesbians often lose custody when their situation is discovered.

Custody can be used by ex-spouses to adjust property settlements. Fear of disclosure can have disruptive effects on comfort and ease of family gatherings. It is concluded that motherhood, rather than the pursuit of multiple lovers, was the central organizing theme in the lives of lesbian subjects.

Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Heterosexual undergraduates' attitudes toward gay fathers and their children. Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality, 11, 43-62. One hundred fifty-one heterosexual college students' attitudes toward gay male couples and their adopted children were assessed. Subjects evaluated vignettes depicting either a gay male couple or heterosexual couple and their adopted son along the dimensions of parenting ability, degree to which the child's problems were attributable to the parental relationship, distress of the child including gender and sexual identity confusionand the extent to which custody reassignment was perceived to be beneficial.

Differences in subjects' ratings indicated that a boy raised by gay fathers was perceived to be experiencing greater confusion regarding his sexual orientation and gender identity. Custody reassignment was also rated as more beneficial for the son raised by gay fathers.

Multiple regression analyses indicated that these assumptions were significantly predicted by the subjects' stereotype of gay men as effeminate, above and beyond the subjects' political conservatism and religious attendance.

Results are discussed How many communities are there in Tema? accordance with G. Herek's 1984 functional approach to attitudes toward homosexuality. Copyright © 2004 by the American Psychological Association. Gay parenting couples: Parenting arrangements, arrangement satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Pacific Graduate School of Psychology.

Twenty-eight gay male parenting couples and 27 heterosexual parenting couples from across the United States participated in a study comparing gay parenting couples and heterosexual parenting couples. Gay parenting couples are already existing gay couples How many communities are there in Tema? which a child has been brought prior to the child's 9-month birthday and in which the child is presently being reared. Parents' division of labor and satisfaction with their division of labor was assessed using Cowan and Cowan's Who Does What?

Results revealed gay How many communities are there in Tema? couples demonstrate significantly more equitable arrangements of parenting tasks and roles and significantly greater satisfaction with those arrangements than the heterosexual parenting couples.

Post-hoc testing revealed a gender difference: Women reported significantly greater dissatisfaction with parenting arrangements than their husbands or gay parents. Findings are explained in terms of three factors unique to the experience and social setting of gay parenting couples. The dissertation citation and abstract contained here is published with permission of ProQuest Information and Learning. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Gay fathers and their children.

Presents data from a 3-year study on the quality and nature of the relationships of homosexual How many communities are there in Tema? with their children. In-depth interviews were conducted with a snowball sample of 40 gay fathers and 14 How many communities are there in Tema?

their children. Uses a cross-national sample: Interviews were conducted in large and small cities in both Canada and the United States. Excluded from the study were men who no longer saw their children. Fathers were aged from 24 to 64, and the children who were interviewed ranged from 14 to 33 years of age. Addresses the nature of the father-child relationship and the children's adjustment to their father's homosexuality.

Four issues frequently raised in custody cases are discussed: Do gay fathers have children to cover their homosexuality, do they molest their children, do their children turn out to be gay in disproportionate numbers, and does having a gay father expose a child to homophobic harassment. Concludes that concerns that gay fathers will have a negative impact on their children's development are unfounded.

Copyright © 1995 by the American Psychological Association. The child's home environment for lesbian versus heterosexual mothers: A neglected area of research. Journal of Homosexuality, 7, 49-56. Compared 34 lesbian aged 21-42 yrs. Results reveal a less affluent socioeconomic setting for the children of lesbian mothers. A strong child-development orientation was found among lesbian mothers, undermining the stereotype of lesbians as aloof from children.

Lesbian mothers tended to assume a principal role in child-care responsibility regardless of whether the caregiver and breadwinner roles were shared with a live-in partner. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association.

Lesbian and bisexual mothers and nonmothers: Demographics and the coming-out process. Journal of Family Psychology, 16, 144-156. In a large, national sample of 2,431 lesbians and bisexual women, those who had children before coming out, those who had children after coming out, and those who did not have children were compared on demographic factors and milestones in the coming-out process. Controlling for age and income, lesbians and bisexual women who had children before coming out had reached developmental milestones in the coming-out process about 7-12 years later than women who had children after coming out and about 6-8 years later than nonmothers.

Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Lesbian and traditional mothers' responses to adult responses to child behavior and self concept. Attempted to determine if significant differences existed between 34 lesbian and 47 traditional mothers on measures of maternal attitude and self-concept.

The Adult Response to Child Behavior, a set of slides of children's behaviors and set responses, provided an indicator of adult, task- and child-centered attitudes. Three personality aggregates-self-confidence, dominance, and nurturance-were computed from responses to the Adjective Check List. Chi-square analyses showed no difference in response to children's behavior or in self-concept of How many communities are there in Tema?

and traditional mothers. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Voices from the heart: The developmental impact of a mother's lesbianism on her adolescent children. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 63, 281-299. Studied 11 young adults aged 16-23 yrs. The subjects' experiences surrounding their How many communities are there in Tema? disclosure were explored, and sexual identity issues and friendships were highlighted.

Findings indicate profound loyalty and protectiveness toward the mother, openness to diversity, and sensitivity to the effects of prejudice. Subjects reported strong needs for peer affiliation and perceived secrecy regarding their mother's lesbianism as necessary for relationship maintenance.

Other concerns, abating over time, were unrealized fears of male devaluation and homosexuality. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Correlates of relationship satisfaction in lesbian couples who are parenting their first child together. Thirty lesbian couples who were parenting an 18- to 36-month-old child conceived through alternative insemination participated in this cross-sectional study.

Based on a multidimensional model of couple satisfaction for heterosexual couples in their transition to parenthood, developed by the Becoming a Family Project at University of California-Berkeley Cowan, C. Findings are explained in terms of newer female developmental models which acknowledge and normalize women's relational values. The study also compared the biological and nonbiological mothers. Biological mothers had a greater need for autonomy, saw their actual and ideal role as mother slightly larger and their actual and ideal leisure time as smaller than did their partners, and had a more positive relationship with their own mothers.

There were no differences between partners in their self-esteem, coming-out experiences, felt acceptance as a lesbian parent, relationship commitment, sexual satisfaction, social involvement, How many communities are there in Tema? their perception of their child. They divided household chores, decision making, and child-related tasks about equally. Finally, the study described the women and the couples' parenting choices.

Women's mean age was 35, and the average length of their relationships was 7. Seventy percent used an unknown donor to prevent potential third-party interference. Seventy percent of the nonbiological mothers were planning to or had already adopted their child.

One third of the couples were planning to have another child. Limitations of the study and implications for clinical intervention and future research are offered. The dissertation citation and abstract contained here is published with permission of ProQuest Information and Learning. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Heterosexual and lesbian single mothers: A comparison of problems, coping and solutions. Journal of Homosexuality, 5, 198-204. Gathered descriptive data on the everyday experiences of 23 heterosexual mean age 38 yrs.

Children ranged in age from 1 to 30 years. Research methods included participant observation in a wide range of discussion groups and group activities, in-depth interviews, and a questionnaire. Using a phenomenological perspective, comparisons were drawn between heterosexual and lesbian respondents' adaptations to three common concerns: child custody, housing, and employment.

While both groups reported oppression in the areas of freedom of association, employment, housing, and child custody, the degree of perceived oppression was greater for lesbian mothers. Lesbian mothers exhibited patterns of behavior that may have been responses to perceived oppression and that counterbalanced felt difficulties by the development of relatively higher levels of independence. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association.

Children of the lesbian baby boom: Behavioral adjustment, self-concepts, and sex-role identity. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Families of the lesbian baby boom: Parents' division of labor and children's adjustment. Assessed lesbian couples' division of labor, their satisfaction with division of labor and with their relationships, and their children's psychosocial adjustment.

The 26 participating families were headed by lesbian couples, each of whom had at least one child between 4 and 9 years of age. Parents' relationship satisfaction was generally high but was unrelated to measures of parental division of labor or of children's adjustment. Although both parents reported sharing household tasks and decision making equally, biological mothers reported greater involvement in child care, and nonbiological mothers reported spending longer hours in paid employment.

Parents were more satisfied and children were more well adjusted when labor involved in child care was more evenly distributed between the parents.

Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Families of the lesbian baby boom: Maternal mental health and child adjustment. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy, 4, 91-107. This article reports a study of maternal mental health, household composition, and children's adjustment among 37 families in which 4- to 9-year-old children had been How many communities are there in Tema?

to or adopted early in life by lesbian mothers. Results showed that maternal reports of both self-esteem and psychological symptoms were within the normal range. Consistent with findings for heterosexual parents and their children, assessments of children's adjustment were significantly associated with measures of maternal mental health. These results underline the importance of maternal mental health as a predictor of children's adjustment among lesbian as well as among heterosexual families.

Reprinted with permission of Haworth Press. Families of the lesbian baby boom: Children's contact with grandparents and other adults. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68, 390-399. Investigated, in an exploratory study of 37 lesbian-mother families, the frequency of 4- to 9-year-old children's contact with adults in their extended family and friendship networks.

Results countered stereotypes of such children as isolated from parents' families of origin. Among children's adult contacts, those with relatives of their biological mothers were found to be more frequent than those with relatives of nonbiological mothers. Children were more likely to be in contact with their grandparents, as well as with other adult How many communities are there in Tema?, on the biological rather than the nonbiological side.

Interpretations of these findings are considered. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Growing up with a gay, lesbian, or bisexual parent: An exploratory study of experiences and perceptions. Thirty-four men and women ages 18 to 28 with a homosexual or bisexual parent were interviewed extensively about their experiences growing up in their families, learning of their parents' sexuality, and developing their own social relationships.

Their retrospective accounts mean time lapse since learning of parent's sexuality was 9. Quantitative findings concerning the initial reactions of offspring support some of the previous qualitative reports in the field. Respondents who had learned about their parents' sexual orientation in adolescence reported significantly more negative initial reactions to the news than respondents who learned before this time. They were more likely to report negative initial reactions if the parent was their father as opposed to their mother.

Initial reactions to the parent also were linked to respondents' concerns about negative reactions of friends to both the non-heterosexual parent and themselves. These initial reactions were not, however, necessarily indicative of perceived current closeness to the non-heterosexual parent, one sign of how the offspring had resolved their feelings about their parents' homosexuality or bisexuality.

The current quality of respondents' relationships with their bisexual or homosexual parents was related to the perceptions of parents' ease of communication and openness with offspring. Respondents' conceptualizations of personal relationships suggest possible effects of the experience of growing up with a gay, lesbian, or bisexual parent, especially with regard to perceptions of friendship and sexuality.

The study findings are discussed in light of methodological problems in this type of research, and directions for future research are suggested. The dissertation citation and abstract contained here is published with permission of ProQuest Information and Learning. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. A comparison between the children of lesbian mothers and the children of heterosexual mothers. This study explored the effect of mothers' sexual orientation on three areas of development in children of latency age: self-concept, locus of control orientation, and self and familial views.

Fifteen lesbian mother-child pairs and 15 heterosexual mother-child pairs comprised the sample. The two groups were highly similar on a number of personal and demographic variables e. Children's self and familial views were measured by the Kinetic Family Drawing Rating Scale devised by the investigator and adapted from the Burns and Kaufman 1982 scoring How many communities are there in Tema? for the Kinetic Family Drawing Projective Test.

Mothers also completed a Family Questionnaire devised by the investigator which included demographic information and questions regarding mother's and child's adjustments to the separation from the child's father.

No significant differences were found between the two groups How many communities are there in Tema? children in self-concept or in locus of control orientation scores. These findings make it difficult to defend the view that the mother's sexual orientation is detrimental to the development of the child's self-concept or locus of control orientation.

There were significant differences, however, in self and family views between the two groups of children. More children of heterosexual mothers depicted the family and father in activities with them than did children of lesbian mothers. Also, the majority of children with heterosexual mothers drew scenes depicting cooperation between the child and other figures, whereas most of the children of lesbian mothers did not. It was noteworthy that most of the children in the sample included the father in their drawings, suggesting that the father is a very important figure in these children's lives regardless of mother's sexual orientation.

It was suggested that the impact of divorce or separation on the child is greater than the mother's sexual orientation. The need for longitudinal studies of children of lesbian mothers, particularly from latency through adolescence, was emphasized. The dissertation citation and abstract contained here is published with permission of ProQuest Information and Learning. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

Psychological health and factors the court seeks to control in lesbian mother custody trials. Journal of Homosexuality, 8, 27-39.

How many communities are there in Tema?

The court has repeatedly ruled that a mother will lose custody of and visitation privileges with her children if she expresses her lesbianism through involvement or cohabitation with a female partner, being affiliated with a lesbian community, or disclosing her lesbianism to her children.

The present study examined associations between expressions of lesbianism for 25, 23-to 46-year-old White self-identified lesbian mothers and psychological health, as measured by three scales on the California Psychological Inventory and by the Affectometer. Psychological health correlated positively with openness to employer, ex-husband, children, a lesbian community, and amount of feminist activism. Partial support was found for the hypothesis that lesbian mothers who were expressing their lesbianism would be psychologically healthier than those who were not.

Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. A comparison of children of lesbian and single heterosexual mothers on three measures of socialization. Children in three contexts: Family, education, and social development.

Children Australia, 21 323-31. See footnote on page 6. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Department of Psychology, City University of New York. Seventy-eight gay men who are parents via adoption or arrangements with surrogate mothers were compared with 83 gay non-fathers on measures of internalized homophobia, self-esteem, and recollections of their families of origin during childhood.

Tests of statistical significance included: the t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, chi-square, Pearson's r, and analysis of variance. This research begins the documentation of a recent phenomenon in the gay community, gay men who are choosing to become fathers within the context of a gay identity.

Results indicate that fathers and non-fathers do not differ significantly in their recollections of maternal and paternal parent-child relationships on measures of love, rejection, attention, or casual versus demanding attitudes toward rules. Nor do the two groups differ significantly on their perceptions of intimacy and autonomy in the family of origin.

However, fathers do display significantly higher levels of self-esteem and significantly lower levels of internalized homophobia than non-fathers. Further comparisons include non-fathers who would like to raise a child and those who would not, and correlations between the arrival of a child and scores on measures of self-esteem and How many communities are there in Tema?

homophobia. The author speculates that the fathers' higher self-esteem and lower internalized homophobia are a result of fatherhood rather than a precursor to it. The dissertation citation and abstract contained here is published with permission of ProQuest Information and Learning. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. The value of children to lesbian and non-lesbian mothers. Journal of Homosexuality, 39, 73-91.

Compared the responses of 25 lesbian and 26 non-lesbian mothers mean age 35 yrs. This instrument measures the reasons that may explain why adults become parents and the values and functions for children in the lives of adults. Only one subscale that measures goals and incentives for assuming parenthood and having children differentiated between the groups.

The significant differences in responses on the one subscale may be attributed to differences in worldviews of lesbian and non-lesbian mothers. Copyright © 2004 by the American Psychological Association. Psychosocial development of children of lesbian mothers. Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, several tests for sex-role behavior and gender identity, and the Bene-Anthony Family Relations test.

Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Separation-individuation in children of lesbian and heterosexual couples. This exploratory study compared separation-individuation in children of lesbian and heterosexual couples, examining how the presence of a female co-parent, rather than a father, might 1 facilitate or hinder a child's intrapsychic separation and 2 affect girls and boys differently.

Independence, ego functions and object relations, components of separation-individuation, were measured through use of a structured parent interview, a Q-Sort administered to parents and teachers, and a Structured Doll Technique with the child.

Subjects were 11 lesbian families and 11 heterosexual families. The children ranged from 2 years 10 months to 5 years in age, with eight boys and three girls in each group. Parent interviews were analyzed qualitatively for differences between reports of lesbian and heterosexual parents. Structured Doll Technique protocols were scored by raters. T tests were performed on Q-Sort items and on Structured Doll Technique How many communities are there in Tema?

by family structure group lesbian vs. Major findings were that children of both lesbians and heterosexuals fell within the normal range of the separation-individuation process. Neither group revealed more psychopathology or difficulties in separation-individuation than the other group. Yet findings also How many communities are there in Tema? significantly different experiences of separation and individuation for How many communities are there in Tema? and heterosexuals' children.

Heterosexuals' children had a more aggressively tinged separation. It was concluded that the presence of a female co-parent, rather than a father, does not adversely affect the child's progression through the separation-individuation process, but does establish a qualitatively different separation experience. The dissertation citation and abstract contained here is published with permission of ProQuest Information and Learning. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.

Gender and family patterns of lesbian coparents. Gender and Society, 10, 747-767. In this article the author explores the ways in which lesbian coparents divide household, child care, and paid labor to learn whether, and the degree to which, they adopt egalitarian work and family arrangements.

Informed by a brief overview of U. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Adults raised as children in lesbian families. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 65, 203-215.

Twenty-five young adults aged 17-35 yrs. Subjects raised by lesbian mothers functioned well in adulthood in terms of psychological well-being and of family identity and relationships. The commonly held assumption that lesbian mothers will have lesbian daughters and gay sons was not supported. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Growing up in a lesbian family. From the jacket Presenting a. The book focuses on the follow-up interviews with grown-up children who took part in the study-all of whom were born to heterosexual partnerships but whose mothers later entered lesbian relationships.

Shedding light on the quality of their family life, young adults share what it was like to grow up with a lesbian mother and her partner and discuss their level of awareness during childhood of growing up in a lesbian-headed home.

Also considered are ways children from lesbian mother families integrate their family background with their school environment and cope with prejudice. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. The role of co-mothers in planned lesbian-led families. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 2, 49-68.

Compared the role and involvement in parenting of co-mothers in 15 British lesbian mother families with the role of resident fathers in two different groups of heterosexual families 43 families where the study child was conceived through donor insemination, and 41 families where the child had been naturally conceived. There was a similar proportion of boys and girls in each group of families; average age across all 3 groups of children was 6 years.

Birth mothers in all three types of families were administered a semistructured interview to assess the quality of family relationships. Questionnaire data on How many communities are there in Tema?

associated with parenting were obtained from co-mothers and fathers, and the children completed the Family Relations Test.

The results indicate that co-mothers played a more active role in daily caretaking than did most fathers. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association.

Family functioning in lesbian families created by donor insemination. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 73, 78-90. We wanted to investigate whether the lack of a biological connection influences the social parent-child interaction. To discover this, a comparison is made between both parents within the lesbian household.

The second aim of this study is to explore the content of the role of the social parent in a lesbian family. A total of 24 lesbian families participated. Unlike fathers in heterosexual families, the lesbian social mother is as much involved in child activities as is the biological mother. Furthermore, the lesbian social mother has as much authority as does the father in heterosexual families.

Copyright © 2003 by the American Psychological Association. Psychosocial adjustment and school outcomes of adolescents with same-sex parents. Child Development, 75 6Nov-Dec 2004, 1886-1898. This study examined associations among family type same-sex vs. Participants included 44 12- to 18-year-old adolescents parented by same-sex couples and 44 same-aged adolescents parented How many communities are there in Tema?

opposite-sex couples, matched on demographic characteristics and drawn from a national sample. Normative analyses indicated that, on measures of psychosocial adjustment and school outcomes, adolescents were functioning well, and their adjustment was not generally associated with family type. Assessments of romantic relationships and sexual behavior were not associated with family type.

Regardless of family type, adolescents whose parents described closer relationships with them reported better school adjustment.

Copyright © 2004 by the American Psychological Association. Lesbian stepfamilies: An ethnography of love. New York: Harrington Park Press.

Lesbian Step Families: An Ethnography of Love explores five lesbian step families' definitions of the step parent role and how they accomplish parenting tasks, cope with homophobia, and define and interpret their experiences. An intensive feminist qualitative study, the book offers guidelines for counselors and lesbian step families for creating healthy, functioning family structures and environments. It is the first book to concentrate exclusively on lesbian step families rather than on lesbian mothering in general.

In Lesbian Step Families: An Ethnography of Love, you'll explore in detail the different kinds of step relationships that are developed and what factors may lead to the different types of step mothering in lesbian step families. The findings in Lesbian Step Families: An Ethnography of Love challenge traditional views of mothering and fathering as gender and biologically based activities; they indicate that lesbian step families model gender flexibility and that the mothers and How many communities are there in Tema?

mothers share parenting-both traditional mothering and fathering-tasks. This allows the biological mother some freedom from motherhood as well as support in it.

With insight such as this, you will be prepared to help a client, a loved one, or yourself develop and maintain healthy family relationships. Reprinted with permission of Haworth Press Copyright © 1998.

Adult sexual orientation and attraction to underage persons. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 7, 175-181. Screened 175, 15- to 64-year-old males convicted of sexual assault against children with reference to their adult sexual orientation and the sex of their victims. The subjects divided fairly evenly into two groups based on whether they were sexually fixated exclusively on children or had regressed from peer relationships.

Female children were victimized nearly twice as often as male children. All regressed offenders, whether their victims were male or female children, were heterosexual in their adult orientation. There were no examples of regression to child victims among peer-oriented, homosexual males.

The possibility emerges that homosexuality and homosexual pedophilia may be mutually exclusive and that the adult heterosexual male constitutes a greater risk to the underage child than does the adult homosexual male. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. The adjustment of the male overt homosexual.

Journal of Projective Techniques, 21, 17-31. The protocols were also presented in pairs to the judges to see if they could distinguish the homosexual and heterosexual protocols. Agreement between judges of the adjustment ratings was fair, but the Rorschach experts could not discriminate between homosexual and heterosexual protocols any better than chance. The two groups did not differ significantly in adjustment ratings. Homosexuality as a clinical entity does not exist.

Its forms are as varied as are those of heterosexuality. Homosexuality may be a deviation in sexual pattern which is within the normal range, psychologically. Copyright © 2004 by the American Psychological Association. Are children at risk for sexual abuse by homosexuals? Objective: To determine if recognizably homosexual adults are frequently accused of How many communities are there in Tema?

sexual molestation of children.

How many communities are there in Tema?

Design: Chart review of medical records of children evaluated for sexual abuse. Setting: Child sexual abuse clinic at a regional How many communities are there in Tema? hospital. Patients: Patients were 352 children 276 girls and 76 boys referred to a subspecialty clinic for the evaluation of suspected child sexual abuse. Charts were reviewed to determine the relationships of the children to the alleged offender, the sex of the offender, and whether or not the alleged offender was reported to be gay, lesbian, or bisexual.

Results: Abuse was ruled out in 35 cases. Seventy-four children were allegedly abused by other children and teenagers less than 18 years old.

In nine How many communities are there in Tema?, an offender could not be identified. In the remaining 269 cases, two offenders were identified as being gay or lesbian. Using the data from our study, the 95% confidence limits of the risk children would identify recognizably homosexual adults as the potential abuser are from 0% to 3. These limits are within current estimates of the prevalence of homosexuality in the general community.

Conclusions: The children in the group studied were unlikely to have been molested by identifiably gay or lesbian people. Reprinted with permission of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Personal adjustment of male and female homosexuals and heterosexuals. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 78, 237-240. Compared the personal adjustment and psychological well-being of 127 male and 84 female homosexuals with 123 male and 94 female heterosexuals.

Subjects were matched for sex, age, and education. Homosexuals did not differ in important ways from heterosexuals in defensiveness, personal adjustment, or self-confidence as measured by the adjective check list; or in self-evaluation as measured by a semantic differential. Homosexuals were more self-concerned as there were more members of both homosexual groups who had or were undertaking psychotherapy. However, there were no adjustment differences in any group between those who How many communities are there in Tema?

and had not experienced psychotherapy. Copyright © 2004 by the American Psychological Association. The families of lesbians and gay men: A new frontier in family research. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 111-127. Examined the extent to which the family relations of lesbians and gay men are integrated into the family literature by reviewing over 8,000 articles published between 1980 and 1993 in nine journals that publish family research.

The review shows that research on lesbian and gay families is quite limited, and that, where these families have been studied, they have been problematized and their diversity has been overlooked. The authors describe and define lesbian and gay families, illustrating their diversity and challenging the neglect of this population in family studies.

The authors direct researchers' attention toward a social ecologies model that incorporates the dynamics of family relationships. Theoretical implications of studying lesbian and gay families are discussed, and research directions to improve knowledge of these families and families in general are proposed. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Comparing the impact of homosexual and heterosexual parents on children: Meta-analysis of existing research.

Journal of Homosexuality, 32, 19-35. Should the sexual orientation of the parent play a part in the determination of custody or visitation in order to protect the child? This meta-analysis summarizes the available quantitative literature comparing the impact of heterosexual and homosexual parents, using a variety of measures, on the child ren. The analyses examine parenting practices, the emotional well-being of the child, and the sexual orientation of the child. The results demonstrate no differences on any measures between the heterosexual and homosexual parents regarding parenting styles, emotional adjustment, and sexual orientation of the child ren.

In other words, the data fail to support the continuation of a bias against homosexual parents by any court. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Outcomes for children with lesbian or gay parents: A review of studies from 1978 to How many communities are there in Tema?. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 43, 335-351.

Twenty studies reported on offspring of lesbian mothers, and three on offspring of gay fathers. The studies encompassed a total of 615 offspring age range 1. Seven types of outcomes were found to be typical: emotional functioning, sexual preference, stigmatization, gender role behavior, behavioral adjustment, gender identity, and cognitive functioning. Children raised by lesbian mothers or gay fathers did not systematically differ from other children on any of the outcomes.

The studies indicate that children raised by lesbian women do not experience adverse outcomes compared with other children. The same holds for children raised by gay men, but more studies should be done. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. Developmental and contextual factors that influence gay fathers' parental competence: A review of the literature.

Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 3, 67-78. This article reviews the existing literature on gay parenting using two theoretical frameworks: developmental and ecological. Findings suggest that the normal stressors of parenting are compounded for gay men because of their membership in a socially stigmatized group. Specifically, competent parenting in gay men appears to be influenced by the ability to come to terms with a homosexual identity and negotiate the ongoing stress associated with living in a homophobic and heterosexist society.

The author discusses the theoretical implications of these findings and suggests areas for future research. Copyright © 2002 by the American Psychological Association. A review of data-based studies addressing the effects of homosexual parenting on children's sexual and social functioning.

Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 20, 105-122. Summarizes the results of a computer and manual search of the published literature focused on children raised in gay and lesbian households. Includes 14 studies that met the criteria. Concludes that the published research database is too weak to support a definitive conclusion that there are no significant differences in children raised by lesbian mothers versus those raised by heterosexual mothers.

Copyright © 1995 by the American Psychological Association. Gay fathers: A review of the literature. New York: Harrington Park Press. Reviews the literature on gay fathers, including historical perspectives and statistical data.

Studies of gay fathers and other groups, such as lesbian mothers and nongay fathers, are compared. While the paucity of literature and limitations of the research prevent definitive conclusions, a list of tentative generalizations is proposed. Copyright © 2004 by the American Psychological Association. Lesbian motherhood: The impact on child development and family functioning. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, 18, 1-16.

Children of gay and lesbian parents.

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