Question: Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element?

Contents

Besson has said he will never make a Fifth Element sequel, and theres a lot to be grateful for there. Its hard to imagine that the original films charming kitsch would translate well on modern screens.

Blueberry as drawn by Jean Giraud. It chronicles the adventures of William Burnet alias Blueberry on his travels through the.

In any situation, he sees what he thinks needs doing, and he does it. The older stories, released under the Fort Navajo moniker, Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element? ultimately reissued under the name Blueberry as well in later reprint runs. Twoor rather, sub-series, La Jeunesse de Blueberry Young Blueberry and Marshal Blueberry, were created pursuant the main series reaching its peak in popularity in the early 1980s.

On the brink of theDonovan is forced to flee north after being framed for the murder of his fiancée Harriet Tucker's father, a plantation owner. On his flight toward the border, he is saved by Long Sam, a fugitive slave from his father's estate, who paid with his life for his act of altruism.

After enlisting in thehe becomes an enemy of discrimination of all kinds, fighting against the although being a Southerner himself, first enlisting as a in order to avoid having to fire upon his former countrymenlater trying to protect the rights of.

He starts his adventures in the as a lieutenant in the shortly after the war. Directly before he started his apprenticeship at Jijé, Jean Giraud had already approached Jean-Michel Charlier on his own accord, asking him if he was interested in writing scripts for a new western series for publication inthe just by Charlier co-launched legendary French comic magazine. Charlier refused on that occasion, claiming he never felt much empathy for the genre.

Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element?

Charlier had in effect already written several Westerns, both comics and illustrated short prose stories, in the period 1949-1959 for various previous magazines. Furthermore, Charlier had already visited the South-West of the United States in 1960, resulting in several Native-American themed educational Pilote editorials. In 1962, the magazine sent Charlier on a reporting assignment around the world for its editorials, and one of his last 1963 ports of call was in theCalifornia.

He took the opportunity to re- discover the American West, returning to France with a strong urge to write a western. First he asked Jijé to draw the series, but Jijé, a lifelong friend and collaborator of Charlier, thought there would be a conflict of interest, since he was then a tenured artist at Spirou, a competing comic magazine, which published his own Western comic Jerry Spring, and in which he was very much invested.

In his stead, Jijé proposed his protégé Giraud as the artist. He already had outlines in mind, but asked me to come up with a name. He suggested a couple of names, which sounded not bad, but I wanted something softer for this rough and basic character. That was the right choice, and Charlier liked the name as well. That came about this way: To have Blueberry come across as a non-conformist, I described him right from the start as uncombed, disheveled, unshaven, broken nosed, etc.

When I began to create the new series, and everything started to fall into place, I decided to reuse my friend's nickname, because I liked it and thought it was funny. In the first album, Blueberry was called Steve. I forgot that first name and then I named him Mike. Due to the fact that Blueberry became the most popular character so early on in the Fort Navajo story-arc, Charlier was forced to do an about-face and started to write out the other main characters he had in place in order to make room for Blueberry.

Actually, and by his own admission, Charlier had originally written McClure as a temporary, minor background character, but Giraud was so taken with the character that he asked Charlier to expand his role in the series, and which stands out as the earliest known instance of Giraud exercising influence on the scripts of his senior colleague.

Actually, this collection had been an initiative of Charlier himself in his function as publishing co-editor, and the 17 titles in the collection were in effect Dargaud's first comic album releases, and an influential release at that. Favorably received and though not being the first, the hard cover format became the norm in France definitively, where henceforth all comic albums were executed in the format — becoming indeed generally accepted as a mature part of French culture eventually — whereas the vast majority of the other European countries continued to employ the soft cover format for decades to come, somewhat reflecting the status comic books had in their societies at the time.

These included for the time being French-Belgium as well, Charlier's native country, where exactly the same collection was concurrently licensed to, and released byalbeit as soft cover only. Charlier's initiative was not entirely devoid of a healthy dose of self-interest, as over half the releases in the collection, were, aside from Blueberry, titles from other comic series he had co-created.

Other European countries followed the same template with local magazines. Additionally, Giraud also scripted the intermezzo series Marshal Blueberry 1991-2000but had no creative input for the La Jeunesse de Blueberry prequel series, after the first three, original volumes. The mere fact that serious newspapers and magazines were by then vying for the opportunity to run Blueberry in their publications first aside from the above-mentioned publications, the newspaper had already run the first two outings of the revitalized La Jeunesse de Blueberry series in 1985 and 1987 — seewas testament to the status Blueberry and its creator s had by then attained in Francophone Europe.

With the growing popularity of Blueberry came the increasing disenchantment over financial remunerations of the series. The magazine was forced to drop the announcement page it had prepared for the story. Unfazed, Dargaud founder and ownerunwilling to give in, countered by having the book released before Nouveau Tintin had even had the chance to run the story.

Then Giraud left on his own accord. While Charlier had no influence on this whatsoever, it did serve a purpose as far as he was concerned. Giraud in overdrive was so fast that he even overtook Charlier's script pages Charlier habitually fed his artists piecemeal with script pages, usually a couple at the timeforcing him to write ten pages of the story on his own, as Charlier was at that time on documentary assignment in the United States for French television.

Upon his return, Charlier took one look at the pages completed in his absence, and continued where Giraud had left off without further much ado. Though Charlier continued to provide his younger colleague with scripts but not his other artistshe started working as documentary maker for French television. It was while he was working on two documentaries on the that he gained inspiration for his below-mentioned Les Gringos Western comic series, which started its run in 1979 at Koralle.

It was the first time that Giraud wrote for Blueberry by himself, and was, considering Charlier's easy acceptance of Giraud's writing, Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element?

testament to the close, and trusting working relationship both men had cultivated by that time. Yet, I think one can not discern its difficult birth; there are good scenes, pages I really poured heart and soul into.

But it is no longer the same. I won't be taken in by Blueberry anymore! On that occasion Charlier, owning a law degree, stipulated an exemption clause for magazine pre- publications of his own co- creations. Though never intended as such, the hitherto dormant exemption clause now served him well in his conflict with Dargaud, without having to fear for any legal ramifications on Dargaud's part. Yet, Georges Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element?

refused to take the bait and the creators subsequently put forward the Jim Cutlass western comic as a last ditch effort to spell out to Dargaud that the creators had other options. Dargaud still would not budge. It was then that it became clear to Charlier, that he was left with no other option than to leave, and this he did taking all his other co-creations with him, to wit andwhich, while not as popular as Blueberry, were steady money making properties for Dargaud nonetheless.

The choice for the German publisher was made for their very ambitious international expansion strategy they had in place at that time. Yet, for all Charlier's business acumen, he had failed to recognize that Koralle's exuberant expansion drive had essentially been a do-or-die effort on their part. In 1978 Koralle was on the verge of bankruptcy, and a scheme was devised to stave off this fate; international expansion. In the European comics world that was a rather novel idea at the time and Koralle did expand beyond the German border into large parts of Europe Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element?

variants of their main publication magazine, with the revived Blueberry as its flagship, accompanied with comic book releases.

Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element?

It did not pay off however, as the holding company already pulled the plug in 1980, leaving Blueberry and the others quite unexpectedly without a publishing home.

It were not only the Blueberry creators that were left in a pickle, as Koralle had managed to convince other well known Franco-Belgian comic artists to switch sides. Aside from Giraud's old mentor Jijé who, having abandoned his own Jerry Spring Western comic, was now penciling Charlier's revitalized Redbeard and Tanguy et Laverdurethese predominantly concerned artists from publishing house Le Lombard.

Tapping into his substantial social Franco-Belgian comic network, Charlier found Jacques de Kezel — a highly influential behind-the-scenes figure of the Belgian comics world at those times, and who had actually gathered the stable of artists for Koralle — willing for Axel Springer to pass the torch to.

Part of their strategy was to forego on a magazine of their own and instead release titles directly in album format, as it was noticed that the serialized comic magazine format had already started to wane in Europe as a format and actually one of the main reasons for Axel Springer to pull the plug on Koralleresulting in the advantage of not having to incur the expenses of maintaining magazine editorial offices. Any still existing comic magazine elsewhere, willing to publish serialized comic series after the initial book releases, was merely considered an added bonus.

Still, it took some time for Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element? new publisher to get up and running, and some sort of stop-gap resolution had to be found for the intervening 1979-1980 period in order to secure income for the stable of comic artists.

After Novedi had become operational, the business model was adopted by them and it was decided to continue with Giraud's other alma mater Hachette for France with the subsequent titles in the Blueberry and other series in recognition of the help Édi-Monde had provided. Hachette incidentally, later acquired a special, one-time-only license from Dargaud to reissue the entirety of the Blueberry series in 2013-2014 as the 52 volume La Collection Blueberry anthology, each volume augmented with a six-page illustrated editorial.

For a decade Blueberry resided in calm waters at Novedi. The 1980s saw three additions to the main series completing the Rehabilitation story arc as well as four new titles in the newly created La Jeunesse de Blueberry series. Nevertheless, despite the two Blueberry incarnations and Jeremiah being the top selling series for the publisher, it appeared that the financial base was too narrow for even a publisher the modest size of Novedi, as the publisher went out of business in 1990, after having published approximately 120 album titles, and despite having taken over the book publications for France themselves as well in the latter half of the decade.

It again left Blueberry and the others without a publishing home. I was not quite on board with the development of the story yet, we still had not decided upon anything. On 10 July 1989, Jean-Michel Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element? passed away from a heart condition Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element?

a short illness. By all accounts Charlier had been a throughout his career, working simultaneously on as much as a dozen projects at any given time, steadily increasing his workload as he grew older. His heart condition had already troubled him in his later years and his death, while sudden, was not entirely a surprise. There were always seven to eight scenarios underway.

His life was a true path of self-destruction. You should have seen him working at his desk! Six months before his passing, I advised him to calm down. Very artistically, he replied: No, I have chosen this!

While Charlier was willing to overlook Giraud's wanderings in his case only, he was otherwise of the firm conviction that artists, especially his own, should totally and wholeheartedly devote themselves to their craft — as Charlier always had considered the comic medium — but which was somewhat incongruous on his part as he himself was habitually engaged in several divergent projects at any given time.

This has caused many of his artists problems on a frequent basis, as he was consistently and notoriously late with his piecemeal provided script pages, including Giraud at the start of his Blueberry career. However, as he recognized quite early on that Blueberry occupied a special place in his body of work, he later made sure that only his Blueberry artists were provided with scripts in a timely fashion.

Charlier's method of working came at a cost, as his scripts frequently contained continuity errors on the detail level, and which included those of Blueberry, such as in his above cited instance of his hero's first name. It was this circumstance that has led Philippe Charlier, son of the deceased author and now the heir and steward of his father's bande dessinée legacy, to make the unsubstantiated claim that Novedi was surreptitiously negotiating with Giraud only for the existing and future Blueberry series, intent on cutting the Charlier family out, which was incongruous as Novedi was already heading toward receivership, aside from the fact that Giraud has never even hinted at such alleged dealings and that not a single corroborating rumor has ever surfaced elsewhere in the otherwise tight-knit Franco-Belgian comic community, save for the claim Charlier Jr.

Some of the first pages he showed us then were radically different from the ones ultimately published in the album later on. Yet, Giraud undertook no further action himself, partly because he was still Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element? in the United States, too preoccupied with his own projects and the wrapping up of his affairs over there before his return to France and thus too busy to be engaged in secret negotiations with Novediand partly because his marriage to his first wife Claudine was in the early stages of falling apart at the time.

It turned out that Philippe was actually picking up where his father had left off. Around the time he had established Alpen and unbeknownst to Giraud, Giger was already approached by Charlier Sr. The artist himself though, taken completely unawares and having had little choice in the matter, has later expressed a slightly different opinion, where it was implied that he was not as happy with the behind-the-scenes machinations as Giger made it out to be, especially since his late script partner had kept him out of the loop in 1988.

While the initial intention was to have the entire body of work of Charlier published at Alpen, the corporation with the publisher did not pan out for undisclosed reasons — though Giger had mentioned increasingly difficult copyright negotiations with other copyright holders, predominantly heirs of other artists who had worked with Charlier, the widow of Jijé in particular, who had successfully taken Giger and Charlier Jr.

While Jeremiah has remained with Dupuis ever since, for again unknown reasons the cooperation with Blueberry did not seem to pan out either.

Bravely Default

It was not that bad; At Dargaud, they are more active on the editorial level. During the entire time I was at Humanos, I had not received a single call to start a new project. If Blueberry had remained with Humanos, there still would not have been a new album! At Dargaud, the late Guy Vidal became a true series editor-in-chief, active, pugnacious, adhering to continuous series.

When I did ask to start, along came Mister Blueberry, followed suit by Tombstone and Geronimo. I do the best I can. I'm not saying it's all entirely successful. I do recognize that there are some surprising issues at the script or drawing level, but it has the merit of not being routine!

Aside from this, Dargaud made use of the opportunity to clean up the by then muddied release chronology, by formalizing the establishment of the three series and restarting the album numbering for each in reprint runs. Concurrently, all international licenses were renegotiated. Like the France Loisirs release, each volume, save three in the end, collected two of the original albums and was only offered to newspaper readers and subscribers.

The three single album volumes No's 8, 15 and 16 were augmented with new Blueberry Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element?, featured in a separate section and separately negotiated for with Giraud's own Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element?, Mœbius Production. Jean-Michel Charlier has never witnessed the return of his creations to the parent publisher, nor has he ever Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element?

fences with George Dargaud — for whose publishing house Charlier had made signature contributions after all — and who followed Charlier in death almost to the day one year later on July 18, 1990.

It quickly evolved into an international release as it has as of 2019 become translated into German, Dutch, Spanish, Danish, Finnish, Serbo-Croatian, and Swedish. The German and Danish editions are remarkable in that these countries had already seen their aforementioned and relatively recent 2006-2011 Egmont edition which had itself been quite elaborate as wellconstituting an enduring testament to the continuing popularity of Giraud's Blueberry, particularly in Germany.

In 2017, a Marshal Blueberry intégrale, collecting the three individual volumes of the intermezzo mini-series, was additionally released by Dargaud, likewise seeing several international translations. Furthermore, it also lacked any editorials — which ironically made the earlier corresponding Egmont release from 2006 the superior one, as that volume did feature editorials.

Together with the near-simultaneous and similar publication of the story in Dutch in full and in color in Fix en Fox magazine, issues 26 -41, 1965both actually stand out as the first known non-French publications of Blueberry, or of any other work by Giraud but not Charlier for that matter. While Egmont completed the publication of the then existing series in whole for the latter two language areas, publication of the English titles already ceased after Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element?

4. That has always amazed me every time I entered some graphics, or animation studio, at Marvel or even at '. Mentioning the name Jean Giraud did not cause any of the present pencillers, colorists or storyboard artists to even bat an eye. Actually this was the first time Blueberry was published under Giraud'sMoebius. Yet, the artist recognizes the fact that he has now become better known in this country under his '' and this is his way of making it official!

It was for Epic that Giraud created new Blueberry book cover art which he had only done once previously for the first four German book releases by Koralle, nor would he ever againand to the chagrin of parent publisher Dargaud this art — as is indeed all outside the main comics proper Blueberry art, such as magazine covers, art portfolios, posters and the like, that Giraud created in this period of time for Koralle, Les Humanoïdes Associés, as well as his own publishing houses Gentiane, Starwatcher Graphics, and the subsequent Stardom Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element?

remain outside the legal purview of Dargaud, even after they had reacquired the Blueberry copyrights in 1993. In practice this means that Dargaud can not use this art at will for their own later publications, such as the 2012 anthology releases, without coming to some sort of legal and financial arrangement with the copyright holders — i.

German author Martin Jürgeit co-author of the below-listed has confirmed being confronted with this when he served as editor-in-chief for the German-language version of Egmont's earlier mentioned anthology collection. Dead set on having all available Blueberry material included in his version, he found himself frequently frustrated in this regard on more than one occasion.

The collection, which ran for nine volumes, also contained Giraud's science fiction body of work, that was concurrently released by Epic in a similar manner. The Epic collection earned Giraud his American 1991 comic award, augmented with an additional 1997 award nomination for the Mojo Press release, whereas Blueberry in general had already earned him two American comic awards in 1972 and 1973, long before the series had even come to the attention of North-American readership.

French Canada has traditionally been served with the original French publications. The same also held true for the first three Young Blueberry titles, then part of the main series. For expedience sake only the French editions from the parent publisher are mentioned.

For the book Giraud created new pages and panels to improve the flow of the story, and as such the book is readable as a stand-alone prequel title. As of 2017, only foreign language editions are available to them. I talked to him about it, but it seemed he was not aware of it; he has never been one for cinema. He must have had unconsciously remembered the movie, and apparently completely suppressed the memory of it.

You know, these things happen, and one can not automatically assume plagiarism. Giraud paid homage to the movie by having the main cast appear in a few background cameos. The assertions of Giraud notwithstanding, the possibility of plagiarism allegations might explain why this title was left out by Epic, despite the already mentioned fact that Giraud's art style was by now fully his own.

Translator Lofficier chose the for Americans familiar-sounding name of the real legend as title for the American book release, but changed the characters to being denizens from thein the process changing the original expletives from German to Dutch in his translations, aside from altering the Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element? name spellings accordingly. The phenomenon has not applied for Canada. These editions were released in a relatively modest print run of 6. France however, is one of the few remaining European countries where the use Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element?

is actively discouraged and combated by cultural Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element?, resulting in the use of the more laborious expression as the Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element? title. The French publisher is listed first.

When introduced at the April 1996copies sold at the convention came with a separatesome of which signed by the artist. A staple in the European comic scene as a collector's item, it was not recognized by American buyers as such. Being at the time unfamiliar with the phenomenon, and since the ex-libris featured blown-up interior art instead of original art, many of them mistook it, the unsigned ones in particular, as a discardable commercial insert, something American magazine readers were very much familiar with.

As a result, the ex-libris has therefore become a very rare collectible, prized by European collectors in particular. In Spanish and Portuguese Blueberry has seen licensed publications by local publishers in the Americas, as it has in the former Yugoslavia after its disintegration into its constituent parts. In the European Union, in case of trans-border language areas, it has become customary from the mid-1980s onward, to have publishing rights reside with one publisher only.

Like it was in native France, most countries have seen Blueberry pre-published in magazine serials. No matter what solution was chosen, it became one of the reasons for the messed up book release chronologies for those countries only aggravated by both the later addition of Young, and Marshal Blueberry book titles as well as the aforementioned publishing wanderingsconfusing readership, especially in Germany. In Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element? United States, California based distributor Public Square Books currently known as Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element?

Public Square imported Blueberry books from Spanish publisher on behalf of the Spanish speaking part of the country. Latino-Americans therefore, have been afforded the opportunity to enjoy the then entirety of the Blueberry series including the spin-offscontrary to their English speaking counterparts.

Apart from Europe, the Americas, Japan, Indonesia and China, the series or parts thereof has been translated on the Indian subcontinent in by Mahlua of Cydit Communications, operating out of Aizawl, and in Tamil. Despite dogged efforts on the part of Giraud, the intended Blueberry 1900 sequel did not come to fruition for extraneous reasons.

Neither Jean Giraud nor I were particularly interested to have concurrent, both long and short but similarly themed stories, published in two different magazines. But abundant, longtime fan-mail from readers, who gave us their friendship by faithfully following his tumultuous adventures, told me that the Blueberry character posed many irritating enigmas for them. Why did he have a broken nose? Why did he stay in the army as he obviously did not possess the qualities, besides his bravery, Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element?

a good soldier? And why this ridiculous name Blueberry? Blueberry is English for myrtille: Lieutenant Myrtille, that was not a name for a Western hero! The questions came from all sides.

Unfortunately, it was impossible for me to further encumber stories that were already quite heavy. Then the idea struck me to forge out a past for Blueberry through the stories we were asked to do for this Superpocket Pilote. A past in which our readers would find answers to satisfy their legitimate curiosity.

Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element?

The idea excited Giraud, who decided, in order to differentiate between two series, to adopt a more lively style, more edgy, but less convoluted. A later created prequel series, dealt with Blueberry's early years, during the American Civil War, relating how the racist son of a wealthy plantation owner turned into a Yankee bugler and all the adventures after that.

The material for the first three albums, conceived by the original Blueberry creators, was originally published in the 1968—1970 sized Super Pocket Pilote series, as in total nine 16-page short stories, eight of them constituting one story-arc set in the war.

It very much resembled a regular series episode, but much smaller. Charlier subsequently presented me with another idea: the one concerning the Civil War. While the resulting spontaneous art worked out fine for the smaller sized pages of Superpocket Pilote, it did suffer from the enlargement for the hereafter mentioned album releases, when compared to the larger, more detailed pages for the Pilote main series on which he concurrently continued to work.

Still, the experience gained on the La Jeunesse shorts served him well, when he had to create Jim Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element? in a hurry a decade later, utilizing a similar technique. For the book publication, the original pages were Is there a sequel to The Fifth Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element? up and by Giraud extended in width, rearranged, re-colored with some panels omitted in the process to fit the then standard album format of 46 pages, when discounting the two disclaimer pages.

However, for the book publication, the two panels which showed the real murderer being killed were cut, causing a discrepancy as it left readers, unfamiliar with the original publication, wondering why Blueberry was so despondent, as, from their point of view, the real killer was still alive.

Unable to resolve the royalties conflict, which had dragged on for five years, Charlier and Giraud turned their back on the parent publisher, leaving for greener pastures elsewhere and taking all of Charlier's co-creations with them. For Dargaud it indeed turned out to be a costly affair as the two 1979 titles were the last new titles they were able to release for nearly fifteen years, missing out on a period of time in which Blueberry reached the pinnacle of its popularity — seeing, besides new titles in the main series, the birth of two spin-off series as well — even though the publishing rights of the older book titles remained where they were.

Apart from the editorial changes to fit the book format and the creation of new covers for the two additional albums, Giraud also made use of the opportunity to recreate a small number of panels to replace those he had felt unhappy about in hindsight, spread over all three albums. Dargaud considered their three, original creator's, La Jeunesse de Blueberry book titles as part of the main series, until they regained the Blueberry rights in late 1993, and as such have therefore seen translations in most of the aforementioned languages as well.

Apart from the expedited release of the two additional La Jeunesse titles, Dargaud also undertook a subsequent action in an attempt to further profit from the upsurge in popularity of Blueberry, by releasing the first six-volume Blueberry integral edition of 1984. Rombaldi was brought into the fold to act as an intermediary in order to negotiate a separate license from Novedi to have the then four Novedi main series titles included as well in volumes 5 and 6, though Dargaud performed a copyright infraction by making sure Novedi was not mentioned as copyright holder in the respective colophons.

The three La Jeunesse titles were collected in volume 6. It was in effect American readership that was first afforded a clarification for the discrepancy in the first book and the editorial changes made, before European readers were, in the editorials by Lofficier of the releases.

Only these first three books were published in English. The three American albums, again translated by the Lofficier couple, were also, unaltered and unedited, included in the above-mentioned anthology collection from Graphitti Designs.

Young Blueberry Blueberry's Secret ComCat comics, September 1989, ; Moebius 6, Graphitti Designs, 1990, Three chapters in one book. A Yankee Named Blueberry ComCat comics, March 1990, ; Moebius 6, Graphitti Designs, 1990 Three chapters in one book.

The Blue Coats ComCat comics, July 1990, ; Moebius 6, Graphitti Designs, 1990 Three chapters in one book. With the exception of a latter-day 2017 illegal, extremely limited, Dutch-language edition, none have seen the day of light to date in the rest of the world, including home country France.

Readers, not familiar with the original Super Pocket Pilote publications, found themselves facing a baffling and inexplicable plot twist, only aggravated by the publisher who in unconvincing and confusing text captions tried to explain the discrepancy away, leaving uninitiated fans at the time erroneously suspecting that not all shorts were being published.

In the publisher's defense however, Charlier had confusingly, but unintentionally, given two of his shorts an identical title in French and it is not that much a stretch of the imagination to assume the editors believing that the two stories belonged with each other.

Fortunately for the American readership, the correct chronology, pursuant a first correction in the aforementioned Danish anthology earlier that year, was adhered to in the ComCat releases.

Ironically, the French themselves, as indeed the rest of Europe, had to wait until 1995 the Dutch actually beating the French to the punch by one year before the publisher, pursuant regaining the Blueberry rights, could be bothered to correct the chronology for later reprint runs, after having it allowed to persevere for Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element?

two decades in numerous prior reprint runs for all language editions, the Danish and American editions excepted. Making sure that these three digit-sized releases were technically and legally magazine releases, akin to the Super Pocket Pilote source publications, all the shorts from Dargaud's two additional albums were reprinted in the series.

The shorts were presented uncut, with a new coloring, but featured the redrawn panels from Giraud. Ironically though, Charlier too failed to correct the chronology.

To drive home the point, the pockets also contained Charlier's two Redbeard shorts, as Dargaud had also employed a similar ploy for that series, as indeed they also had for Tanguy et Laverdure for that matter. Charlier licensed Koralle to follow suit by establishing the equally temporary Gary Publishing imprint for identical publication in Dutch. These were actually among the last known releases by Koralle, as the publisher was already in an advanced state of becoming defunct.

That parent company Axel Springer even allowed the publications to go through at this late stage, should be considered another token of goodwill in recognition of Charlier's help in the smooth transition from Koralle to Novedi, as these pockets saw no release in the German home language, or in any other for that matter. Charlier Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element? farmed out a license to Danish publisher then the Novedi licensed Blueberry publisher to publish the Blueberry shorts in their monthly magazine.

Dargaud at the time had license agreements with competitors Oberon and Serieforlaget for the Netherlands and Denmark respectively.

Multimillion

That is why I deliberated for so long when they asked me to do the Young-series. I mean, what I am doing is so close to Giraud, that everybody will think me a mere Giraud-imitator. Especially the first few pages. I think, as we go along, we will build something that is recognizably different from what Giraud has done up until now. Both publisher Novedi and writer Jean-Michel Charlier told me that they want me to make the series my own as soon as possible.

That is why it is such a challenge. I'm looking for my own way. This artist is quite capable of doing the series, but he is somewhat paralyzed by the fame of Blueberry and the personality of Jean Giraud. Ultimately, the most evident part of my work with him was to prevent him constantly wondering how Giraud would have drawn such and such panel in his place.

La Jeunesse de Blueberry will not replace the series by Jean Giraud, who is absolutely not tired of drawing it. Quite the contrary, it is constantly on his mind! Since he has more or less identified with Blueberry, he is less and less inclined to drop the series.

I was extremely backlogged; he helped me with the three last pages in particular. I carefully did the penciling and some of the faces that of General Golden Mane for example and all the Blueberrys in detail, and Colin did the rest. But this was a special case, a kind of favor from a friend. I like Colin and his wife Janet very much. If Colin wants, I can assume the role Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element?

a mentor. I told Colin he should in no way feel tied down, he should take all the freedom he needs; it is his series now. He was as impressed with Blueberry as I was with Jerry Spring, back in the day. It was then that the creators decided to revisit the Young Blueberry adventures as well, which had ended its run in Super Pocket Pilote. Giraud was nowhere near able to take on yet another major series himself, as he was still working on his Incal series as Moebius, besides having embarked on Blueberry again.

There actually had been an additional, more prosaic reason as well for the decision to do so. After a stay of nearly two years, Giraud moved to the United States in late 1984 and set up shop firstly in Santa Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element?, and subsequently in Venice and Woodland Hills, California. Publisher Novedi feared, not entirely unjustified — as the release lag between the two books had already increased from eighteen months to three years — that it endangered the publication regularity of the main series, and resurrecting, or more accurately, creating the Young Blueberry series, was the back-up strategy they had in mind.

Novedi had solid reasons to do so, as any new Blueberry title in that particular period of time enjoyed an all-language European first print run of 500. Publisher and creators subsequently embarked on a search for a suitable artist to take on the task. His admiration for Franco-Belgian bande dessinée artists, Giraud in particular, became in 1980 the driving force for Wilson to try his luck as such in Europe, aside from the fact that his native country did not afford any opportunities to become one professionally.

Unaware that his work was already brought to the attention of his idol and his co-worker, Corteggiani arranged Wilson's first face-to-face meeting with them in September 1983 in Paris. Much to his own surprise, Wilson was almost immediately asked if he was interested to take on the new Young Blueberry series.

He did not make a fuss about anything. He really stuck out his neck for me by involving me, a virtually unknown young artist, in a success series. I know he could be tough as nails with publishers.

Wilson was signed for five albums. Corteggiani himself was yet to leave his mark on the La Jeunesse de Blueberry series later on. Wilson became the second, and last Charlier artist, after Giraud, whom the author provided with script pages in a timely fashion, once even receiving a page overnighted from Kuwait where the author then was on documentary assignment, just to keep his artist working. Working seven days a week for ten to twelve hours, Wilson produced five to six pages a month, using a combination of pen and brush for he inks, just as his idol had done for his Jeunesse Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element?

and which had become the inspiration for Wilson to abandon the technical utensils he had originally used in New-Zealand. This time around however, and unlike 1980, the rumors found their way to the outside world, causing anxiety in the fan community. The first half-page was accompanied by an editorial from Charlier, in which he tried to allay the fears of the fans see quotebox.

Despite the initial trepidations of fans, Wilson's Blueberrys were favorably received, achieving print run numbers approximating those of the main series, as well as seeing translations in nearly as many languages, with English being the glaring one of the few exceptions as of 2017.

Wilson has divulged that Novedi released the first album in a first French printing of 150. The French edition sold out in a matter of weeks, and an additional 20. Compared to the main series, the first printing was conservative for the French edition and ample for the Dutch edition.

Wilson though, had to abandon this series in 1989, having added two more titles, because Blueberry Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element? all his attention and energy, aside from the fact that it was the more Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element?

one by far, allowing the couple to move to the Provence. It were not only the fans who were relieved, Wilson too had his trepidations alleviated when he met the fans face-to-face for the first time at several comic convention book signings after the release of the first album, grateful for their gracious reception and acceptance of his Blueberry, even though most of them concurrently and emphatically expressed their relieve that Giraud would continue to be the artist for the main series.

Giraud himself assigned her the task, being impressed by the work she had done on her fiancé's album. She would continue to color all her future husband's Blueberry books, as well as several albums from other artists released by Novedi.

Like parent publisher Dargaud, publisher Novedi considered the Young Blueberry books part of the main series at first until 1990, before they were instituted as a separate spin-off series, mostly for the practical reason of wanting to avoid further pollution of release numbering and chronology. Dargaud's stance was adhered to in other European countries, among others in Spain where then regular Blueberry publisher released their 1988-1996 Las aventuras del teniente Blueberry eight-volume integral collection, encompassing all hitherto released Blueberry albums, including those of Wilson.

Like Dargaud had to do for their previous Les géants du l'ouest collection, the Spanish had to separately negotiate licenses from Koralle and Novedi for their Blueberry releases, but unlike the Dargaud release, these publishers were dutifully mentioned as copyright holders in the colophons of the respective volumes. It was therefore not Dargaud who took the initiative for the move, but rather Novedi, due to the fact that Dargaud had lost the publishing rights for new Blueberry titles, actually missing out on the first five, most successful, titles of the new series as explained.

But Dargaud did adopt the format, once these rights had returned to them in late 1993. Publication came to naught, due to the near-concurrent, but otherwise coincidental, demises of both Novedi and Catalan Communications in early-1990 and mid-1991 respectively.

However, the search for a replacement for Charlier, turned out to be a rather tall order, as none of the established names in the Franco-Belgian comic world were found willing to fill the shoes of the legendary Charlier, whereas non-established names were rejected for pretty much the same reasons why Wilson was not considered as replacement. Corteggiani had been one of the lesser names in the Franco-Belgian comic world, having predominantly written a couple of short-lived humorous comic series and one realistic series, the heavily inspired mafia saga De silence et de sang — which he had abandoned in 1986 after only two volumes, only to take it on again ten years later, piggybacking on his newfound notoriety as Blueberry writer.

Both critical and commercial success have always eluded Corteggiani, and by the time he was approached by Novedi and Philippe Charlier, he had suspended his own career as a bande dessinée artist, instead becoming a tenured script writer for the French Disney studios. To his credit, Corteggiani refused at first, for the same reason his more established colleagues had already done previously, but eventually conceded on the insistence of Wilson.

Wilson had personal reasons to do so, as Corteggiani was a personal friend of the Wilson-couple, aside for the practical reason that he was living in the vicinity of the Wilson-couple at the time.

When the non-French speaking Wilson couple first arrived in Europe, they met Corteggiani at the annual Italian festival. Corteggiani took a shining on the newcomers and took them under his wing. It was Corteggiani, using his vast Franco-Belgian comic world social network, who introduced Wilson to publisher Glénat, resulting in his first European comic series Dans l'Ombre du Soleil, in the process negotiating on behalf of his friend.

As already related, it was Corteggiani who, while keeping tabs on the work of his friend, introduced Wilson's work to the Blueberry creators. Wilson reasoned that by suggesting Cortegianni for a major series, he could return the favor he had provided him a few years earlier, by getting his friend's bande dessinée career back on track. Actually, he and Wilson had already started their own Thunderhawks comic series before Charlier died, an aviation comic set shortly after the first world war in the American South-West, but which had to take a backseat due to the fact that the Blueberry series took precedence.

This he did to the satisfaction of all parties involved, including Wilson, and Corteggiani was retained as the Jeunesse writer ever since. This can only be explained by the fact that Wilson was originally signed for five albums by Novedi, and that the of the defunct publisher wanted the revenues for the legal and financial finalization of the bankruptcy.

The album therefore became a posthumous Novedi release. There is in his comics a real attention to detail and investment rarely equaled. Jonathan Cartland is a very ambitious graphic work, but Colby withis somewhat below his potential.

Even I find weaknesses in the scripts of François Corteggiani, but is not my place to stick my nose in his work. As of 2016, the spin-off series by Corteggiani and Blanc-Dumont remains only published in French, Spanish, German, Dutch, Danish and Italian, a far cry from the nearly two dozen languages the main series had once been published in, or the by Colin Wilson penciled Young Blueberry volumes for that matter.

But Giraud had written the script Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element? a novel. The page division was still lacking, as were the dialogs. Furthermore he had planned to spread the story over two books. Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element? suggested to expand that to three books. After I had finished the first Marshal Blueberry, I did not want to do all the work alone anymore. I did not have the time, nor did I want to do the work, others should have rightfully done.

Dargaud had bought back Blueberry, Giraud had rejected part of Smolderen's script, altered the page divisions, etcetera. This spin-off series was the second attempt, this time Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element? Alpen Publishers, to Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element? capitalize on the huge popularity both the main, and Wilson's Blueberry series enjoyed at the time.

Written by co-creator Giraud, the series was set around the events depicted in The Lost Dutchman's Mine and dealt with scrupulous gun runners arming Apaches, thereby instigating an uprising. Chosen by the publisher for the art work was William Vance, an accomplished Belgian comic artist in his own right and renowned for his. Vance, with whom Giraud had virtually no dealings in person, drew the first two outings in the series, but declined afterwards to continue, partly because he was required to finish an album in only four months in Europe, one year was the typical mean to complete a comic book of 48 pages, but not rarely exceeds this time span in recent decades and that he was unaccustomed to Giraud's style as script writer.

Additionally, even though the first book sold 100. This actually was part of the reasons why Wilson's work for Young Blueberry was so favorably received and partly the reason why Blanc-Dumont's was not. The unresolved story cycle lingered in limbo for seven years, before Giraud in person found Michel Rouge — whose style was closer to his — willing to finish the cycle.

That Rouge's style resembled that of Giraud, was hardly a surprise, as Rouge was actually not a stranger to Blueberry. At the time it gave rise to the rumor that Giraud was planning to abandon his co-creation and that Rouge was groomed to take over the series.

Though not Blueberry, Rouge did take over that other famed contemporary Franco-Belgian western comic series, Hermann's Comanche, but Rouge was not able to regain the popularity that series once enjoyed, when it was still penciled by Hermann, and the series was suspended indefinitely after Rouge had only added five titles to the series.

Originally intended to become a full-fledged series, the three Marshal Blueberry titles have remained the only outings in the series, though they too have seen several foreign language publications. Although not in France itself, several European countries have seen serialized magazine pre-publication of the first two titles. The third 2000 title though, was invariably directly released in book format for virtually all countries. No English language editions were released.

Neither Jimmy McClure nor Red Neck will appear in it. Additionally, I had the following for Blueberry 1900 in mind: President McKinley is lying in a coma and starts to levitate. Subsequently, they tie him to the bed so he does not float off, but then the whole bed starts to levitate.

So now they have to nail down the whole bed. The Blueberry 1900 scenario was indeed very free and quite transgressive compared to the original depiction of Mike, even more pronounced so than the evolution of Jim Cutlass in his relationship to magic. I could not start this series anyway, as long as the Marshal Blueberry trilogy had not yet come to a conclusion. This would have caused too much confusion in the mind of the reader.

François Boucq therefore could only start drawing after Vance had finished the third volume of Marshal. In the meantime, Alexandro offered him Bouncer, which he naturally accepted. Of course, Blueberry 1900 would have been pretty good, but Bouncer is so great that it would have been unbearable for me to have prevented such a series seeing the day of light. A third spin-off series, coined Blueberry 1900, was conceived by original creator Giraud in the early-1990s, intended as a bonafide sequel series.

Set, as the series title already implied, in the era of the presidency, it would not only have featured a 57-year old Blueberry, but his adult son as well, albeit in a minor role. The story line, intended to encompass five books, was to take place around events surrounding the assassination of President McKinley.

Pegged for the artwork was French comic artist whom Giraud had met at a comic event in honor of his lifelong friendand concurrently discussed the project with. Blanc-Dumont, despite being reciprocally Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element? admirer of Giraud's art and aside from being still invested in his own Western comic, thought the project not suitable for him, deeming the script outline too Mœbiusienne for his taste, and had already suggested Boucq instead.

Boucq showed interest and was enthusiastic about the project, and indeed embarked on the production of pre-publication art studies, but deemed a cycle of five books too much, managing to negotiate it down to a cycle of three books.

He became increasingly alarmed and downright aghast when reading commentaries, Giraud made in contemporary magazine interviews, clarifying his intentions and premises for the proposed series of a Blueberry residing with the tribe, meditating under the influence of mind-expanding substances, while President McKinley was levitating in the due to a Hopi spell.

As heir and steward of his father's co-creations and legacy, being the 50% co-owner of the Blueberry brand, he still had the unequivocal right to veto any and all proposals regarding the trademark Blueberry and did not hesitate for a moment to exercise his prerogative in this case, going as far Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element?

threatening Giraud with a lawsuit, resulting in that the project fell through. As per a horrified Charlier Jr. It is an effrontery, constructed out of implausible circumstances.

As he Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element?, though he had given his seal of approval in this case, Charlier Jr. Reinforced by the for him favorable court ruling, Charlier Jr. Giraud's fascination with went even further back than that, Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element?

he was introduced by Jodorowsky — during the failed Dune-project — in 1974 to the writings ofwho had written a series of books that describe his training in shamanism, particularly with a group whose lineage descended from the. This would probably not be the case if I were to re-start a cycle of 5 albums, because I do not Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element?

I have the energy left for another ten years of work. Actually, I want to take up the idea of Blueberry 1900 again, which has a very realistic side, sometimes a more crazy one: the Indians were a magical people, that was part of their culture, and I want to stage the collision between our world, through the conquest of the West, and the world of Indians who resist.

It is often shown how events took place in a strategic sense, but I wish to plunge into Indian sociology, like it was done inby replacing our materialistic vision of the world, and by explaining the clash of cultures that took place. Of course, there is a certain challenge in doing the story this way, because I might possibly yank the rug from under the feet of the reader. Giraud's death in 2012 ended all notions of a Blueberry 1900 installment, and quite possibly any further installment of the main series as well.

There will be two books published by the duo. It was meant to expand a bit upon the knowledge of Blueberry's past that I had introduced in the full Jeunesse stories.

As an aside, I humbly apologize to the respectable professors and other eminent historians who have rock solidly believed in it, and who have overwhelmed me with requests for my sources.

The idea came to me at thewhen I was looking for old pictures for a television show. One of them caught my eye on a pile of documents dating from the Civil War.

It showed a young, anonymous officer, serving in the cavalry of the Union, who resembled the young Blueberry as drawn by Jean Giraud. I acquired a lot of other pictures of the era, representing southern plantations, black slaves in cotton fields, scenes of the Civil War, trains, forts, Mississippi Show Boats. I mingled many real facts and characters that had really existed into my imaginary biography.

Thanks to the photos brought back from Washington, it became a flagrant truth. To complete this forgery, that amused me immensely, I commissioned my graphic artist Peter Glay for the superb false historical portrait that you can also admire. A detail that should not be lacking in all this pizzazz, the officers represented Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element?

Blueberry sides are, in reality, comic artists andwho were relatively unknown at the time, but who have come a long way since the time they posed as Blue Coats! This hoax worked beyond all hopes: thousands of readers believed in the real existence of Blueberry, following the publication of this false, with authentic photos illustrated, biography.

That my victims may forgive me: si non è vero è bene trovato! He is such a rich character that people can not imagine him disappearing.

According to Jean-Michel, Blueberry has even rubbed shoulders with. We had created the possibility to highlight Blueberry in a panoramic manner by concurrently publish several different series, in which he is young, less young and, why not, old eventually.

We even could have told the story of his death without ending the series. Blueberry is a particularly intimate life companion. He is part of me, but it should not become an obsession. That is the reason why I have given him the chance to escape me by entrusting him to others. The article concerned a fictitious biography of Mike Steve Donovan, alias Mike S. Blueberry, detailing his life from birth to death, and written from a historic, journalistic point of view.

When asked about it a decade later, Charlier clarified that once it became clear to him that Blueberry had become the central character of the series he had conceived, he then already postulated in his mind the broad strokes of the complete life and works of his creation, including the reasons for Blueberry's broken nose and odd alias.

There had been a practical reason as well for this. The story already ran 16 pages over-length and as contemporary printers printed eight double-sided comic book pages on one sheet of print paper, the addition of the 16-page biography was not that much of a bother for their production process.

The photo actually depicts Union General. Currently somewhat of a staple in European comics, at that time the inclusion of an informative background section in a comic book of that size and wealth of detail was hitherto unheard of and a complete novelty, and what Charlier had not foreseen was that many in the pre-internet era mistook the biography for real, factual history, propagating it as such in other outside media as well.

Charlier, who also was an investigative journalist and a documentary maker with a solid reputation for thorough documentation, had previously already written several, shorter historical Old West background editorials for the 1969-1970 Super Pocket Pilote series issues 4—9 as companion pieces for the Jeunesse de Blueberry shorts, which were historically accurate — and, incidentally, working much of the material contained therein, especially the photographs, into the biography for the post-war era — and readers Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element?

the pre-internet-era therefore assumed that the biography was likewise. The photos were indeed authentic, though their captions were not. To complete the appearance of a bonafide in-universe biography, a Civil War-era style group portrait, featuring Blueberry and flanked by the by Charlier mentioned comic artists, was included, ostensibly recently discovered and from the hand of American artist Peter Glay, but in reality created by Pierre Tabary under the pseudonym.

Tabary, brother of Jean, was a French book illustrator of some renown himself, also working for Pilote as illustrator for their magazine editorials at the time. Lofficier has translated the biography in English, specifically for inclusion in the Graphitti Designs anthology collection it was not featured in the Epic editionspublished in the fourth volume of the collection, Moebius 4.

Lofficier however, took it upon himself to slightly edit Charlier's original text in order to reflect Blueberry's life as featured in the post-1974 publications despite being reprinted numerous times, not only in French but in other languages as well, Charlier himself has never revisited his original text againand as such it is not an entirely faithful translation as some elements were added, whereas some others were omitted, such as the aforementioned notion of Blueberry ultimately heading a unit of Apache scouts.

Philippe Charlier on the other hand, was livid when he was presented the final product, and demanded his father's credit removed from the film — which did not happen incidentally, as this under French copy right laws would have also entailed him forfeiting his share of the film royalties he had already received.

Two prior attempts to bring Blueberry to the silver screen in the 1980s had fallen through; American actor had actually already been signed to play the titular role — with whom Kove shared a remarkable resemblance at the time — for the second attempt, and who, as it turned out decades later, had even traveled to Europe to shoot some test-footage scenes from the comic series in this role in order to entice potential investors.

Both he and Jean Giraud attended the opening on 1 December, making themselves also available for book signings. The below-mentioned 1997 documentary was the registration of events surrounding the release, including the exhibition. Overview of Charlier's career, with ample attention for Blueberry. Documentary produced on the occasion of the September 1996 Blueberry exposition at Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element?

Gallery. Pettigrew's 2000 documentary is modeled after the template set in this documentary. Throughout the registrations, Giraud comments on his co-creation, and is intercut with additional remarks from Thierry Smolderen, Guy Vidal and Cristian Rossi, commenting on the place of Blueberry in the Franco-Belgian comic world and in French culture in general.

In the film's last sequence, Giraud does a spontaneous life-size portrait in real time of Geronimo on a large sheet of glass Musée Is there a sequel to The Fifth Element? la Bande dessinée d'Angoulême, 55 min. A Blueberry album sells at least 100. Lofficier: Before Nick Fury, There was.

Lieutenant Blueberry in Marvel Age 79 October, 1989. Date and place of birth as provided by co-creator Charlier in his fictional Blueberry biography included in the 1974 book Ballade pour un cercueil. The date is not a coincidence but willfully chosen, as the 30 October marks the date in 1963 that the Pilote magazine issue in which the series premiered was printed and ready for dissemination the following day.

As of 2017, Dargaud's collection is translated in Spanish, Dutch, Finnish, Swedish the Swedes having previously foregone participation in Egmont's collection project with German and Danish added at a later point in time.

By 2006 Egmont and its foreign subsidiaries had acquired for the second time in its history a European license for a large part of Europe, to wit, Germany, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Poland. Normally, a publisher then proceeds to reprint the individual albums under the new imprint, but in this case it was decided on a different approach.

An ambitious project was conceived in the form of an international integrale hardcover edition, each volume containing between two and four of the individual albums, chronologically collecting all three Blueberry series in one edition, beefed out with elaborate editorials, illustrated with as much Blueberry material as possible Giraud had created outside the scope of the standard albums.

The Norwegian Harry Hansen was appointed the project's overall editor-in-chief, though editor Martin Jürgeit enjoyed certain freedoms where cover design and editorial contents for the German edition were concerned.

In 2006, the edition started its run in Denmark, Norway and Germany. Originally this collection was also slated to appear in Swedish, but the Egmont affiliated publisher for that language edition opted out at the last moment, whereas Poland saw a simple, main series only integrale edition, without the extras, not related to the three edition as released in those countries.

Due to the diminishing popularity of the Young Blueberry series as created by Blanc-Dumont en Corteggiani, the Norwegian 17 Volumes and Danish 12 volumes versions were terminated prematurely, whereas only the German version saw a completed 20-volume release. Still, as of 2020 these releases stand out as the most comprehensive Blueberry release ever attempted, easily surpassing in scope similar efforts of parent publisher Dargaud, including its own comprehensive 2012 integrale edition which only deals with the main series.

While the expression is also used in other countries, albeit unofficially, none have afforded the medium the same status. Lang incidentally, personally presented Giraud his 1985 Angoulême Award for Blueberry.

For the other European countries, including France, Novedi farmed out publication licenses to local publishers in return for approximately 10% gross of their actually sold print runs. Annie Gillian refusing to let Giger and Charlier Jr. The early acquisition of Jeremiah was actually a major consideration to proceed in this manner. The Blog of British Comics from the Past, Present and Future!. The Who's Who of American Comic Books. The Lofficier couple, whom she met at the 1985 San Diego ComicCon, were hired as editors, which eventually led to the Epic publications.

Starwatcher was copyright co-holder of the Epic Moebius graphic novel lines. Blueberry, uma Lenda do Oeste in Portuguese. Two years later though, Giraud himself provided the coloring for the story when it was reprinted in the western art book Blueberry'sfollowed by color reprints in the French magazine Bodoï, issue 10, 1998 and the German magazine Comixene, issue 64, 2003. In the latter, Giraud explained his creative thought processes for the coloring in an editorial.

Furthermore, since Dutch first print releases traditionally number in the 5. In later life, Giraud has watered down the prosaic statement, claiming he only made this comment because he tired of having to explain himself over and over again at the time.

L'univers de 1: Gir in French. Mœbius: Entretiens avec Numa Sadoul in French. Das grosse Moebius Buch in German German language version of the 1991 Casterman ed. Il était une fois Blueberry in French. Ein Yankee namens Blueberry in German German language version of the 1995 Dargaud ed. Zack-Dossier 1: Blueberry und der europäische Western-Comic in German.

Les dossiers de la bande dessinée in French. Blueberry : une légende de l'Ouest in French. Docteur Mœbius et Mister Gir: Entretiens avec Jean Giraud in French Updated, expanded and revised version of the 1991 Casterman ed.

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