Better three hours too soon than a minute too late. Let every man be master of his time. Things without all remedy should be without regard: whats done is done. Make use of time, let not advantage slip.
What is time Shakespeare?Elizabethan era Shakespeare lived from 1564 to 1616 – the early modern period between the Middle Ages and the Industrial Revolution. Looking through a British lens, Shakespeares lifetime spanned most of the Elizabethan era (1558-1603) and the start of the Jacobean era (1603-1625).
What is the sad play called?Tragicomedy Tragicomedy is a literary genre that blends aspects of both tragic and comic forms. Most often seen in dramatic literature, the term can describe either a tragic play which contains enough comic elements to lighten the overall mood or a serious play with a happy ending.
What is the best Shakespeare?The ten best Shakespeare plays of all timeRomeo and Juliet. When was it written? ... The Tempest. When was it written? ... Twelfth Night. When was it written? ... Othello. When was it written? ... King Lear. When was it written? ... Much Ado About Nothing. When was it written? ... Macbeth. When was it written? 1605. ... Hamlet. When was it written? 1600.More items...•Apr 23, 2021
What are some good positive thoughts?Positive Thinking Quotes“Dont be pushed around by the fears in your mind. ... “Instead of worrying about what you cannot control, shift your energy to what you can create.” ... “Be the reason someone smiles. ... “Be mindful. ... “Accept yourself, love yourself, and keep moving forward.More items...
What is a play with a sad ending called?Tragedy. A type of drama that ends in catastrophe. It is a serious play with an unhappy ending -death usually occurs for important characters.
What is a story with a sad ending called?An anticlimax or downer ending both might fit reasonably well.
What are 5 words that Shakespeare invented?Words Shakespeare Inventedacademeaccusedaddictionfrugalgenerousgloomygusthinthobnobimpartialinvulnerablejadedlaughablelonelylower16 more rows
Oxford, Bacon, Derby, and Marlowe clockwise from top left, Shakespeare centre have each been proposed as the true author. Clickable image—use cursor to identify.
The Shakespeare authorship question is the that someone other than of wrote the works attributed to him. Anti-Stratfordians—a collective term for adherents of the various alternative-authorship theories—believe that Shakespeare of Stratford was a front to shield the identity of the real author or authors, who for some reason—usually social rank, state security, or gender—did not want or could not accept public credit.
Although the What did Shakespeare say about time? has attracted much public interest, all but a few Shakespeare scholars and literary historians consider it aand for the most part acknowledge it only to rebut or disparage the claims.
Shakespeare's authorship was first questioned in the middle of the 19th century, when as the had become widespread. Shakespeare's biography, particularly his humble origins andseemed incompatible with his poetic eminence and his reputation for genius, arousing suspicion that Shakespeare might not have written the works attributed to him.
The controversy has since spawned a vast body of literature, and have been proposed, the most popular being ; ; ; and. Supporters of alternative candidates argue that theirs is the more plausible author, and that William Shakespeare lacked the education, aristocratic sensibility, or familiarity with the royal court that they say is apparent in the works.
Those Shakespeare scholars who have responded to such claims hold that biographical interpretations of literature are unreliable in attributing authorship, and that the convergence of used to support Shakespeare's authorship—title pages, testimony by other What did Shakespeare say about time? poets and historians, and official records—is the same used for all other authorial attributions of What did Shakespeare say about time?
era. No such exists for any other candidate, and Shakespeare's authorship was not questioned during his lifetime or for centuries after his death. Despite the scholarly consensus, a relatively small but highly visible and diverse assortment of supporters, including prominent public figures, have questioned the conventional attribution.
They work for acknowledgment of the authorship question as a legitimate field of scholarly inquiry and for acceptance of one or another of the various authorship candidates. They attempt to disqualify William Shakespeare as the author and usually offer supporting arguments for a substitute candidate.
They often postulate some type of that protected the author's true identity, which they say explains why no documentary evidence exists for their candidate and why the historical record supports Shakespeare's authorship.
Most anti-Stratfordians suggest that the exhibits broad learning, knowledge of foreign languages and geography, and familiarity with and and politics; therefore, no one but a highly educated individual or court insider could have written it. Apart from literary references, critical commentary and acting notices, the available data regarding consist of mundane personal details such as of hismarriage and death, tax records, lawsuits to recover debts, and real estate What did Shakespeare say about time?.
In addition, no document attests that he received an education or owned any books. No personal letters or literary manuscripts certainly written by Shakespeare of Stratford survive. To sceptics, these gaps in the record suggest the profile of a person who differs markedly from the playwright and poet. Some prominent public figures, including, andhave found the arguments against Shakespeare's authorship persuasive, and their endorsements are an important element in many anti-Stratfordian arguments.
At the core of the argument is the nature of acceptable evidence used to attribute works to their authors. In contrast, academic Shakespeareans and literary historians rely mainly on direct documentary evidence—in the form of attributions and government records such as the and the —and contemporary testimony from poets, historians, and those players and playwrights who worked with him, as well as modern.
Gaps in the record are explained by the low survival rate for documents of this period. Scholars say all these converge to confirm William Shakespeare's authorship. These criteria are the same as those used to credit works to other authors and are accepted as the standard for authorship attribution.
Case against Shakespeare's authorship Little is known of What did Shakespeare say about time? personal life, and some anti-Stratfordians take this as circumstantial evidence against his authorship. Further, the lack of biographical information has sometimes been taken as an indication of an organised attempt by government officials to expunge all traces of Shakespeare, including perhaps his school records, to conceal the true author's identity.
Shakespeare's background John Shakespeare's house in Stratford-upon-Avon is believed to be. Shakespeare was born, brought up, and buried inwhere he maintained a household throughout the duration of his career in London. A of around 1,500 residents about 100 miles 160 km north-west of London, Stratford was a centre for the slaughter, marketing, and distribution of sheep, as well as for hide tanning and wool trading.
Anti-Stratfordians often portray the town as a cultural backwater lacking the environment necessary to nurture a genius, and depict What did Shakespeare say about time? as ignorant and illiterate. Shakespeare's father,was a glover glove-maker and town official. He marriedone of the ofa family of the local. Both signed their names with a mark, and no other examples of their writing are extant.
This is often used as an indication that Shakespeare was brought up in an illiterate household. His other daughter,signed a legal document with a mark. Anti-Stratfordians consider Shakespeare's background incompatible with What did Shakespeare say about time? attributable to the author of the Shakespeare canon, which exhibits an intimacy with court politics and culture, foreign countries, and sports such as,and. Some find that the works show little sympathy for upwardly mobile types such as John Shakespeare and his son, and that the author portrays individual commoners comically, as objects of ridicule.
Commoners in groups are said to be depicted typically as dangerous mobs. Education and literacy Shakespeare's six surviving signatures have often been cited as evidence of his illiteracy. The absence of documentary proof of Shakespeare's education is often a part of anti-Stratfordian arguments.
The free in Stratford, established 1553, was about half a mile 0. However, grammar school curricula were largely similar, and the basic Latin text was standardised by royal decree. The school would have provided an intensive education in grammar, theand at no cost. The headmaster,and the instructors were graduates. This lack of documentation is taken by many anti-Stratfordians as evidence that Shakespeare had little or no education.
Anti-Stratfordians also question how Shakespeare, with no record of the education and cultured background displayed in the works bearing his name, could have acquired the extensive vocabulary found in the plays and poems. The author's vocabulary is calculated to be between 17,500 and 29,000 words. No letters or signed manuscripts written by Shakespeare survive. All are written ina style of handwriting common to the era, particularly in play writing, and three of them utilize to abbreviate the surname.
Name as a pseudonym Shakespeare's name was hyphenated on the cover of the 1609 quarto edition of the Sonnets. In his surviving signatures William Shakespeare did not spell his name as it appears on most Shakespeare title pages.
His surname was spelled inconsistently in both literary and non-literary documents, with the most variation observed in those that were written by hand.
This is taken as evidence that he was not the same person who wrote the works, and that the name was used as a for the true author. Of those 15 title pages with Shakespeare's name hyphenated, 13 are on the title pages of just three plays, and. The hyphen is also present in one and in six literary published between 1594 and 1623.
In the case of commoners, the reason was to avoid prosecution by the authorities: Bacon to avoid the consequences of advocating a moreand Marlowe to avoid imprisonment or worse after faking his death and fleeing the country.
Anti-Stratfordians say What did Shakespeare say about time? nothing in the documentary record explicitly identifies Shakespeare as a writer; that the evidence instead supports a career as a businessman and What did Shakespeare say about time?
investor; that any prominence he might have had in the London theatrical world aside from his role as a front for the true author was because of his money-lending, trading in theatrical properties, acting, and being a shareholder.
They also believe that any evidence of a literary career was falsified as part of the effort to shield the true author's identity. Alternative authorship theories generally reject the surface meaning of Elizabethan and Jacobean references to Shakespeare as a playwright. They interpret contemporary satirical characters as broad hints indicating that the London theatrical world knew Shakespeare was a front for an anonymous author.
For instance, they identify Shakespeare with the literary thief Poet-Ape in 's poem of the same name, the socially ambitious fool Sogliardo in Jonson'sand the foolish poetry-lover Gullio in the university play performed c.
Circumstances of Shakespeare's death Shakespeare died on 23 April 1616 in Stratford, leaving a signed will to direct What did Shakespeare say about What did Shakespeare say about time? disposal of his large estate. The language of the will is mundane and unpoetic and makes no mention of personal papers, books, poems, or the 18 plays that remained unpublished at the time of his death. Its only theatrical reference—monetary gifts to fellow actors to buy —was after the will had been written, allowing suspicion to be cast on the authenticity of the bequests.
The effigy of Shakespeare's Stratford monument as it was portrayed in 1656, as it appears today, and as it was portrayed in 1748 before the restoration Any public mourning of Shakespeare's death went unrecorded, and no eulogies or poems memorialising his death were published until seven years later as part of the in the First Folio of his plays.
Oxford had died in 1604, five years earlier. The earliest printed image of the figure, in 's Antiquities of Warwickshire 1656differs greatly from its present appearance. Some authorship theorists argue that the figure originally portrayed a man clutching a sack of grain or wool that was later altered to help conceal the identity of the true author. In an attempt to put to rest such speculation, in 1924 published a painting of the monument that had been executed before the 1748 restoration, which showed it very similar to its present-day appearance.
He became an actor and shareholder in the later thethe that owned thetheand exclusive rights to produce Shakespeare's plays from 1594 to 1642. Shakespeare scholars see no reason to suspect that the name was a pseudonym or that the actor was a front for the author: contemporary records identify Shakespeare as the writer, other playwrights such as and came from similar backgrounds, and no contemporary is known to have expressed doubts about Shakespeare's authorship.
While information about some aspects of Shakespeare's life is sketchy, this is true of many other playwrights of the time. Of some, next to nothing is known. Others, such as Jonson, Marlowe, andare more fully documented because of their education, close connections with the court, or brushes with the law. Literary scholars employ the same to attribute works to the poet and playwright William Shakespeare as they use for other writers of the period: the historical record andand they say the argument that there is no evidence of Shakespeare's authorship is a form of fallacious logic known asor argument from silence, since it takes the absence of evidence to be evidence of absence.
They consider the idea that Shakespeare revealed himself autobiographically in his work as a cultural : it has been a common authorial practice since the 19th century, but was not during the Elizabethan and Jacobean eras. Even in the 19th century, beginning at least with andWhat did Shakespeare say about time? frequently noted that the essence of Shakespeare's genius consisted in his ability to have his characters speak and act according to their given dramatic natures, rendering the determination of Shakespeare's authorial identity from his works that much more problematic.
The historical record is unequivocal in ascribing the authorship of the Shakespeare canon to a William Shakespeare. In addition to the name appearing on the title pages of poems and plays, this name was given as that of a well-known writer at least 23 times during the lifetime of William Shakespeare of Stratford. Several contemporaries corroborate the identity of the playwright as an actor, and explicit contemporary documentary evidence attests that the Stratford citizen was also an actor under his own name.
He names twelve plays written by Shakespeare, including four which were never published in quarto:,andas well as ascribing to Shakespeare some of the plays that were published anonymously before 1598—, and. The title was included in many contemporary references to Shakespeare, including official and literary records, and identifies William Shakespeare of Stratford as the same William Shakespeare designated as the author.
Examples from Shakespeare's lifetime What did Shakespeare say about time? two official. One is dated 23 August 1600 and entered by and : Entred for their copies vnder the handes of the wardens. Thother : Wrytten by mr Shakespere. After Shakespeare's death, Ben Jonson explicitly identified William Shakespeare, gentleman, as the author in the title of his eulogy,published in the First Folio 1623. Other poets identified Shakespeare the gentleman as the author in the titles of their eulogies, also published in the First Folio: by and by.
Contemporary legal recognition Both explicit testimony by his contemporaries and strong circumstantial evidence of personal relationships with those who interacted with him as an actor and playwright support Shakespeare's authorship. William Camden defended Shakespeare's right to bear about the same time he listed him as one of the great poets of his time.
The historian and antiquary served as Deputy Master of the Revels from 1603 and as from 1610 to 1622. His duties were to supervise and censor plays for the public theatres, arrange court performances of plays and, after 1606, to license plays for publication.
Buc noted on the title page of George a Greene, the Pinner of Wakefield 1599an anonymous play, that he had consulted Shakespeare on its authorship. In 1602,theaccused Sirtheof elevating 23 unworthy persons to the. One of these was Shakespeare's father, who had applied for arms What did Shakespeare say about time? years earlier but had to wait for the success of his son before they were granted in 1596. The grants, including John Shakespeare's, were defended by Dethick andthe foremost What did Shakespeare say about time?
of the time. Recognition by fellow actors, playwrights and writers The two versions of the title page of 3rd ed. The playwright and poet Ben Jonson knew Shakespeare from at least 1598, when the Lord Chamberlain's Men performed Jonson's play at the with What did Shakespeare say about time?
as a cast member. In 1641, four years after Jonson's death, private notes written during his later life were published. He was indeed honest, and of an open, and free nature; had an excellent fancy; brave notions, and gentle expressions.
Two of the three produced atnear the What did Shakespeare say about time? of the 17th century mention Shakespeare as an actor, poet, and playwright who lacked a university education. Why here's our fellow Shakespeare puts them all down. Jaggard that altogether unknown to him presumed to make so bold with his name. Of Shakespeare, he writes: Our modern poets to that pass are driven, Those names are curtailed which they first had given; And, as we wished to have their memories drowned, We scarcely can afford them half their sound.
Mellifluous Shake-speare, whose enchanting quill Commanded mirth or passion, was but Will. In a verse letter to Ben Jonson dated to about 1608, alludes to several playwrights, including Shakespeare, about whom he wrote. Here I would let slip If I had any in me scholarship, And from all learning keep these lines as clear as Shakespeare's best are, which our heirs shall hear Preachers apt to their auditors to show how far sometimes a mortal man may go by the dim light of Nature.
Historical perspective of Shakespeare's death The inscription on Shakespeare's monument Theerected in Stratford before 1623, bears a plaque with an inscription identifying Shakespeare as a writer. The monument was not only referred to in the First Folio, but other early 17th-century records identify it as being a memorial to Shakespeare and transcribe the inscription.
Sir William Dugdale also included the inscription in his Antiquities of Warwickshire 1656but the engraving was done from a sketch made in 1634 and, like other portrayals of monuments in his work, is not accurate. Numerous public records, including the royal patent of 19 May 1603 that the King's Men, establish that Phillips, Heminges, Burbage, and Condell were fellow actors in the King's Men with William Shakespeare; two of them later edited his collected plays. Anti-Stratfordians have cast suspicion on these bequests, which wereand claim that they were added later as part of a conspiracy.
Both had died four years earlier, less than two months apart. Here Jonson links the author to Stratford's river, theand confirms his appearances at the courts of and. Living four miles from Stratford-upon-Avon from 1600 until attending Oxford in 1603, Digges was the stepson of Thomas Russell, whom Shakespeare in his will designated as overseer to the executors.
What did Shakespeare say about time? for Shakespeare's authorship from his works Shakespeare's are the most studied secular works in history. Contemporary comments and some textual studies support the authorship of someone with an education, background, and life span consistent with that of William Shakespeare. The at Stratford-upon-Avon Ben Jonson and Francis Beaumont referenced Shakespeare's lack of classical learning, and no extant contemporary record suggests he was a learned writer or scholar.
This is consistent with blunders in Shakespeare, such as mistaking the of many classical names, or the anachronistic citing of and in. Much of the learning with which he has been credited and the omnivorous reading imputed to Shakespeare by critics in later years is exaggerated, and he may well have absorbed much learning from conversations.
And contrary to previous claims—both scholarly and popular—about his vocabulary and word coinage, the evidence of vocabulary size and word-use frequency places Shakespeare with his contemporaries, rather than apart from them.
Computerized comparisons with other playwrights demonstrate that his vocabulary is indeed large, but only because the canon of his surviving plays is larger than those of his contemporaries and because of What did Shakespeare say about time? broad range of his characters, settings, and themes.
His classical allusions instead rely on the Elizabethan grammar school curriculum. The curriculum began with 's Latin grammar Rudimenta Grammatices and progressed to,andall of whom are quoted and echoed in the Shakespearean canon. Almost uniquely among his peers, Shakespeare's plays include references to grammar school texts andtogether with caricatures of schoolmasters.
Shakespeare also alluded to the that children attended at age 5 to 7 to learn to read, a prerequisite for grammar school. Title page of the 1634 quarto of The Two Noble Kinsmen by and Shakespeare Beginning in 1987,who was sympathetic to the Oxfordian theory, and Robert J.
Valenza What did Shakespeare say about time? a continuing stylometric study that used computer programs to compare Shakespeare's stylistic habits to the works of 37 authors who had been proposed as the true author. The study, known as the Claremont Shakespeare Clinic, was last held in the spring of 2010. The tests determined that Shakespeare's work shows consistent, countable, profile-fitting patterns, suggesting that he was a single individual, not a committee, and that he used fewer relative clauses and more hyphens,and than most of the writers with whom he was compared.
The result determined that none of the other tested claimants' work could have been written by Shakespeare, nor could Shakespeare have been written by them, eliminating all of the claimants whose known works have survived—including Oxford, Bacon, and Marlowe—as the true authors of the Shakespeare canon.
Shakespeare's style evolved over time in keeping with changes in literary trends. His late plays, such as The Winter's Tale,andare written in a style similar to that of other Jacobean playwrights and radically different from that of his Elizabethan-era plays. In addition, after the King's Men began using the Blackfriars What did Shakespeare say about time? for performances in 1609, Shakespeare's plays were written to accommodate a smaller stage with more music, dancing, and more evenly divided acts to allow for trimming the candles used for stage lighting.
In a 2004 study, Dean Keith Simonton examined the correlation between the thematic content of Shakespeare's plays and the political context in which they would have been written.
He concludes that the consensus play chronology is roughly the correct order, and that Shakespeare's works exhibit gradual stylistic development consistent with that of other artistic geniuses. When backdated two years, the yield substantial correlations between the two, whereas the display no relationship regardless of the time lag. Textual evidence from the late plays indicates that Shakespeare collaborated with other playwrights who were not always aware of what he had done in a previous scene.
This suggests that they were following a rough outline rather than working from an unfinished script left by an already dead playwright, as some Oxfordians propose. For example, in 1612—1613written withShakespeare has two characters meet and leaves them on stage at the end of one scene, yet Fletcher has them act as if they were meeting for the first time in the following scene. History of the authorship question See also: Despite adulatory tributes attached to his works, Shakespeare was not considered the world's greatest writer in the century and a half following his death.
His reputation was that of a good playwright and poet among many others of his era. After the actor mounted the in 1769, Shakespeare led the field. Excluding a handful of minor 18th-century and references, there was no suggestion in this period that anyone else might have written the works.
The authorship question emerged only after Shakespeare had come to be regarded as the English and a unique genius. By the middle of the century his genius was noted as much for its intellectual as for its imaginative strength. The framework with which early 19th century thinkers imagined the English Renaissance focused on kings, courtiers, and university-educated poets; in this context, the idea that someone of Shakespeare's comparatively humble background could produce such works became increasingly unacceptable.
Although still convinced that Shakespeare was the author of the works, expressed this disjunction in a lecture in 1846 by allowing that he could not reconcile Shakespeare's verse with the image of a jovial actor and theatre manager.
In 1848, endeavoured to rebut Strauss's doubts about the by applying the same techniques satirically to the records of Shakespeare's life in his Historic Doubts Respecting Shakespeare, Illustrating Infidel Objections Against the Bible. Schmucker, who never doubted that Shakespeare was Shakespeare, unwittingly anticipated and rehearsed many of the arguments later offered for alternative authorship candidates.
Open dissent and the first alternative candidate was the first writer to formulate a comprehensive theory that Shakespeare was not the writer of the works attributed to him.
Shakespeare's authorship was first openly questioned in the pages of 's 1848. Hart argued that the plays contained evidence that many different authors had worked on them.
As early as 1845, Ohio-born Delia Bacon had theorised that the plays attributed to Shakespeare were actually written by a group under the leadership of Sir Francis Bacon, with as the main writer.
Their purpose was to inculcate an advanced political and philosophical system for which they themselves could not publicly assume responsibility. She argued that Shakespeare's commercial success precluded his writing plays so concerned with philosophical and political issues, and that if he had, he would have overseen the publication of his plays in his retirement.
Francis Bacon was the first single alternative author proposed in print, by William Henry Smith, in a pamphlet published in September 1856 Was Lord Bacon the Author of Shakspeare's Plays? A Letter to Lord Ellesmere. The following year Delia Bacon published a book outlining her theory: The Philosophy of the Plays of Shakspere Unfolded.
Ten years later, Judge Nathaniel Holmes of Kentucky published the 600-page The Authorship of Shakespeare supporting Smith's theory, and the idea began to spread widely. By 1884 the question had produced more than 250 books, and Smith asserted that the war against the Shakespeare hegemony had almost been won by the after a 30-year battle. Two years later the Francis Bacon Society was founded in England to promote the theory.
The society still survives and publishes a journal, Baconiana, to further its mission. These arguments against Shakespeare's authorship were answered by academics. In 1857 the English critic published William Shakespeare Not an Impostor, criticising what he called the slovenly scholarship, false premises, specious parallel passages, and erroneous conclusions of the earliest proponents of alternative authorship candidates. In 1853, with the help of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Delia Bacon travelled to England to search for evidence to support her theories.
Instead of performing archival research, she sought to unearth buried manuscripts, and unsuccessfully tried to persuade What did Shakespeare say about time? caretaker to open Bacon's tomb. She believed she had deciphered instructions in Bacon's letters to look beneath Shakespeare's Stratford gravestone for papers that would prove the works were Bacon's, but after spending several nights in the trying to summon the requisite courage, she left without prising up the stone slab.
Ciphers became important to the Baconian theory, as they would later to the advocacy of other authorship candidates, with books such as 's The Great Cryptogram 1888 promoting the approach. In his multi-volume Sir Francis Bacon's Cipher Story 1893he claimed to have discovered Bacon's autobiography embedded in Shakespeare's plays, including the revelation that Bacon was the secret son of Queen Elizabeth, thus providing more motivation to conceal his authorship from the public.
A feature in the on the 1916 trial of Shakespeare's authorship. From left: George Fabyan; Judge Tuthill; Shakespeare and Bacon. Perhaps because of Francis Bacon's legal background, both mock and real jury trials figured in attempts to prove claims for Bacon, and later for Oxford.
What did Shakespeare say about time? first mock trial was conducted over 15 months in 1892—93, and the results of the debate were published in the Boston monthly The Arena. Ignatius Donnelly was one of thewhile formed part of the defence. The 25-member jury, which included, andcame down heavily in favour of William Shakespeare. In 1916, Judge Richard Tuthill presided over a real trial in Chicago.
A film producer brought an action against a Baconian advocate. He argued that Fabyan's advocacy of Bacon threatened the profits expected from a forthcoming film about Shakespeare. In the ensuing uproar, Tuthill rescinded his decision, and another judge, Frederick A.
In 1907, Owen claimed he had decoded instructions revealing that a box containing proof of Bacon's authorship had been buried in the near on the 's property. His dredging machinery failed to retrieve any concealed manuscripts. That same year his former assistant,financed by George Fabyan, likewise What did Shakespeare say about time? to England. She believed she had decoded a message, by means of arevealing that Bacon's secret manuscripts were hidden behind panels in in. Two years later, the American humorist publicly revealed his long-held anti-Stratfordian belief in 1909favouring Bacon as the true author.
In the 1920s became convinced that Bacon had willed the key to his cipher to the. He thought this society was still active, and that its members communicated with each under the aegis of the Church of England. On the basis of cryptograms he detected in the sixpenny tickets of admission to Holy Trinity Church in Stratford-upon-Avon, he deduced that both Bacon and his mother were secretly buried, together with the original manuscripts What did Shakespeare say about time?
Shakespeare's plays, in the Lichfield in. He unsuccessfully petitioned the to allow him both to photograph and excavate the obscure grave. Maria Bauer was convinced that Bacon's manuscripts had been imported intoin 1653, and could be found in the Bruton Vault at.
She gained permission in the late 1930s to excavate, but authorities quickly withdrew her permit. In 1938 Roderick Eagle was allowed to open the tomb of to search for proof that Bacon was Shakespeare, but found only some old bones. Other candidates emerge By the end of the 19th century other candidates had begun to receive attention. In 1895an attorney, published the novel It Was Marlowe: A Story of the Secret of Three Centuries, whose premise was that Christopher Marlowe did not die in 1593, but rather survived to write Shakespeare's plays.
Rutland's candidacy enjoyed a brief flowering, supported by a number of other authors over the next few years. Anti-Stratfordians unaffiliated to any specific authorship candidate also began to appear. In 1916, on the three-hundredth anniversary of Shakespeare's death,the long-time editor ofwrote a widely syndicated front-page feature story supporting the Marlovian theory and, like Zeigler, created a fictional account of how it might have happened.
After the First World War, Professoran authority on French and English literature, argued the case for William Stanley, 6th Earl of Derby, as the author based on biographical evidence he had gleaned from the plays and poems. With the appearance of 's Shakespeare Identified 1920Edward de What did Shakespeare say about time?, 17th Earl of Oxford, What did Shakespeare say about time? ascended as the most popular alternative author. Two years later Looney and Greenwood founded thean international organisation to promote discussion and debate on the authorship question, which later changed its mission to propagate the Oxfordian theory.
In 1932 announced the discovery of a manuscript that appeared to establish as the earliest proponent of Bacon's authorship, but recent investigations have identified the manuscript as a forgery probably designed to revive Baconian theory in the face of Oxford's ascendancy. Another authorship candidate emerged in 1943 when writerin his Will Shakspere and the Dyer's hand, argued for Sir. This view, of Shakespeare as a commercial go-between, was later adapted by Oxfordians.
After the Second World War, Oxfordism and anti-Stratfordism declined in popularity and visibility. Copious archival research had failed to confirm Oxford or anyone else as the true author, and publishers lost interest in books What did Shakespeare say about time? the same theories based on alleged circumstantial evidence. To bridge the evidentiary gap, both Oxfordians and Baconians began to argue that hidden clues and allusions in the Shakespeare canon had been placed there by their candidate for the benefit of future researchers.
To revive What did Shakespeare say about time? in Oxford, in 1952 Dorothy and published the 1,300-page This Star of England, now regarded as a classic Oxfordian text. The next year he went to England to search for documentary evidence about Marlowe that he thought might be buried in his literary patron 's tomb. A series of critical academic books and articles held in check any appreciable growth of anti-Stratfordism, as academics attacked its results and its methodology as unscholarly.
American and won the Literary Prize in 1955 for a study of the arguments that What did Shakespeare say about time? works of Shakespeare contain hidden ciphers. The study disproved all claims that the works contain ciphers, and was condensed and published as The Shakespearean Ciphers Examined 1957. Soon after, four major works were issued surveying the history of the anti-Stratfordian phenomenon from a mainstream perspective: The Poacher from Stratford 1958byShakespeare and His Betters 1958by Reginald Churchill, The Shakespeare Claimants 1962by H.
Gibson, and Shakespeare and His Rivals: A Casebook What did Shakespeare say about time? the Authorship Controversy 1962by George L. In 1959 the published a series of articles and letters on the authorship controversy, later anthologised as Shakespeare Cross-Examination 1961.
In 1974, membership in the society stood at 80. He proposed fighting for public recognition by portraying Oxford as a candidate on equal footing with Shakespeare. In 1984 Ogburn published his 900-page The Mysterious William Shakespeare: the Myth and the Reality, and by framing the issue as one of fairness in the atmosphere of conspiracy that permeated America afterhe used the media to circumnavigate and appeal directly to the public.
Ogburn's efforts secured Oxford the place as the most popular alternative candidate. He also kick-started the modern revival of the Oxfordian movement by adopting a policy of seeking publicity through moot court trials, media debates, television, and other outlets.
These methods were later extended to the Internet, including. A device from 's Minerva Britanna 1612 has been used by Baconians and Oxfordians alike as coded evidence for concealed authorship of the Shakespeare canon.
Ogburn believed that academics were best challenged by recourse to law, and on 25 September 1987 three of the convened a one-day at theto hear the Oxfordian case. The trial was structured so that literary experts would not be represented, but the burden of proof was on the Oxfordians. The justices determined that the case was based on a conspiracy theory, and that the reasons given for this conspiracy were both incoherent and unpersuasive. A retrial was organised the next year in the United Kingdom to potentially reverse the decision.
Presided over by threethe court was held in the in London on 26 November 1988. On this occasion Shakespearean scholars argued their case, and the outcome confirmed the American verdict. Due in part to the rising visibility of the authorship question, media coverage of the controversy increased, with many outlets focusing on the theory.
On 14 April 2007 the Shakespeare Authorship Coalition issued anthecoinciding What did Shakespeare say about time? 's announcement of a one-year Master of Arts programme in Shakespeare authorship studies since suspended. The coalition intended to enlist broad public support so that by 2016, the 400th anniversary of Shakespeare's death, the academic Shakespeare establishment would be forced to acknowledge that legitimate grounds for doubting Shakespeare's authorship exist, a goal that was not successful.
More than 1,200 signatures What did Shakespeare say about time? collected by the end of 2007, and as of 23 April 2016, the 400th anniversary of Shakespeare's death and the self-imposed deadline, the document had been signed by 3,348 people, including 573 self-described current and former academics.
On 22 April 2007, published a survey of 265 American Shakespeare professors on the Shakespeare authorship question. In 2010 surveyed the authorship question in Contested Will: Who Wrote Shakespeare? Approaching the subject sociologically, Shapiro found its origins to be grounded in a vein of traditional scholarship going back toand criticised academia for ignoring the topic, which was, he argued, tantamount to surrendering the field to anti-Stratfordians.
Shapiro links the revival of the Oxfordian movement to the cultural changes that followed the that increased the willingness of the public to believe in governmental conspiracies and cover-ups, and Robert Sawyer suggests that the increased presence of anti-Stratfordian ideas in popular culture can be attributed to the proliferation of since the. In September 2011,a feature film based on the variant of the Oxfordian theory, written by and directed bypremiered at the. De Vere is portrayed as a literary who becomes the lover ofwith whom he sires Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton, only to discover that he himself may be the Queen's son by an earlier lover.
He eventually sees his suppressed plays performed through the front man, William Shakespeare, who is portrayed as an opportunistic actor and the movie's comic foil. Oxford agrees to Elizabeth's demand that he remain anonymous as part of a bargain for saving their son from execution as a traitor for supporting the against her.
Two months before the release of the film, the launched a campaign attacking anti-Stratfordian arguments by means of a web site, 60 Minutes With Shakespeare: Who Was William Shakespeare? Alternative candidates Main article: While more than 80 historical figures have been nominated at one time or another as the true author of the Shakespearean canon, only a few of these claimants have attracted significant attention.
Group theories Various group theories of Shakespearean authorship were proposed as early as the mid-19th century. Christopher Marlowe, and have also been proposed as participants. Sir Francis Bacon The leading candidate of the 19th century was one of the great intellectual figures of Jacobean England,a lawyer, philosopher, essayist and scientist. Bacon's candidacy relies upon historical and literary conjectures, as well as alleged cryptographic evidence.
Bacon was proposed as sole author by William Henry Smith in 1856 and as a co-author by Delia Bacon in 1857. Delia Bacon argued that there were hidden political meanings in the plays and parallels between those ideas and Bacon's known works.
She proposed him as the leader of a group of disaffected philosopher-politicians who tried to promote republican ideas to counter the despotism of the Tudor-Stuart monarchies through the medium of the public stage. Later Bacon What did Shakespeare say about time?
found similarities between a great number of specific phrases and aphorisms from the plays and those written by Bacon in histhe Promus. Henry Pott compiled 4,400 parallels of thought or expression between Shakespeare and Bacon.
Baconians argue that while Bacon outlined both a scientific and moral philosophy in 1605only the first part was published under his name during his lifetime. They say that his moral philosophy, including a revolutionary politico-philosophic system of government, was concealed in the Shakespeare plays because of its threat to the monarchy. Baconians suggest that the great number What did Shakespeare say about time?
legal allusions in the Shakespeare canon demonstrate the author's expertise in the law. Bacon became in 1596 and was appointed in 1613. Bacon also paid for and helped write speeches for a number of entertainments, including andalthough he is not known to have authored a play.
His only attributed verse consists of sevenfollowing. Since Bacon was knowledgeable about ciphers, early Baconians suspected that he left his signature encrypted in the Shakespeare canon. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries many Baconians claimed to have discovered ciphers throughout the works supporting Bacon as the true author.
Ashmead Windle, an American, claimed she had found carefully worked-out jingles in each play that identified Bacon as the author. This sparked a cipher craze, and probative cryptograms were identified in the works by Ignatius Donnelly, Orville Ward Owen,and Dr.
Platt argued that the Latin wordfound in Love's Labour's Lost, can be read as an anagram, yielding Hi ludi F. Bacon, are preserved for the world. Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford 1550—1604 Since the early 1920s, the leading alternative authorship candidate has been and of England. Oxford followed his grandfather and father in sponsoring companies of actors, and he had patronised a company of musicians and one of tumblers. Examples of his poetry but none of his theatrical works survive.
Oxford was noted for his literary and theatrical patronage. Between 1564 and 1599, 33 works were dedicated to him, including works by, and. In 1583 he bought the sublease of the and gave it to the poet-playwright Lyly, who operated it for a season under Oxford's patronage.
They also note Oxford's connections to the London theatre and the contemporary playwrights of Shakespeare's day, his family connections including the patrons of Shakespeare'shis relationships with and Shakespeare's patron, thehis knowledge of Court life, his private tutors and education, and his wide-ranging travels through the locations of Shakespeare's plays in France and Italy.
The case for Oxford's authorship is also based on perceived similarities between Oxford's biography and events in Shakespeare's plays, sonnets and longer poems; perceived parallels of language, idiom, and thought between Oxford's letters and the Shakespearean canon; and the discovery of numerous marked passages in Oxford's Bible that appear in some form in Shakespeare's plays.
The first to lay out a comprehensive case for Oxford's authorship was J. Thomas Looney, an English schoolteacher who identified personality characteristics in Shakespeare's works—especially Hamlet—that painted the author as an eccentric aristocratic poet, a drama and sporting enthusiast with a What did Shakespeare say about time?
education who had travelled extensively to Italy. He discerned close affinities between the poetry of Oxford and that of Shakespeare in the use of motifs and subjects, phrasing, and rhetorical devices, which led him to identify Oxford as the author. After his Shakespeare Identified was published in 1920, Oxford replaced Bacon as the most popular alternative candidate.
Consequently, they date most of the plays earlier than the standard chronology and say that the plays which show evidence of revision and collaboration were left unfinished by Oxford and completed by other playwrights after his death. Christopher Marlowe 1564—1593 The poet and dramatist was born into the same social class as Shakespeare—his father was a cobbler, Shakespeare's a glove-maker. Marlowe was the older by two months, and spent six and a half years at. He pioneered the use of in Elizabethan drama, and his works are widely accepted as having greatly influenced those of Shakespeare.
Of his seven plays, all but one or two were first performed before 1593. The Marlovian theory argues that Marlowe's documented death on 30 May 1593 was faked. The theory then argues that Shakespeare was chosen as the front behind whom Marlowe would continue writing his highly successful plays.
These claims are founded on inferences derived from the circumstances of his apparent death, stylistic similarities between the works of Marlowe and Shakespeare, and hidden meanings found in the works and associated texts. Lists of verbal correspondences between Marlowe's and Shakespeare's work have also been compiled. Marlowe's candidacy was initially suggested in 1892 by T.
White, who argued that Marlowe was one of a group of writers responsible for the plays, the others being Shakespeare,and. William Stanley, 6th Earl of Derby 1561—1642was first proposed as a candidate in 1891 by James Greenstreet, a British archivist, and later supported by Abel Lefranc and others.
That same year Derby was recorded as financing one of London's two children's drama companies, ; he also had his own company, Derby's Men, which played multiple times at court in 1600 and 1601.
Derby was born three years before Shakespeare and died in 1642, so his lifespan fits the consensus dating of What did Shakespeare say about time? works. Derby travelled in continental Europe in 1582, visiting France and possibly. Love's Labour's Lost is set in Navarre and the play may be based on events that happened there between 1578 and 1584.
Derby marriedwhose maternal grandfather wasthought by some critics to be the basis of the character of Polonius in Hamlet. When Derby released his estates to his son around 1628—29, he named Pembroke and Montgomery as trustees. Derby's older brother,formed a group of players, thesome of whose members eventually joined the King's Men, one of the companies most associated with Shakespeare. An early example is Zeigler's 1895 novel It was Marlowe: a Story of the Secret of Three Centuries.
How have performances of Shakespeare changed over time?
Apart from the 2011 Oxfordian film Anonymous, other examples include 's 2001 play's 2016 and the 2020based on the works of. The upper figure, from Marvin Spevack, is true only if all word forms cat and cats counted as two different words, for examplecompound words, emendations, variants, proper names, foreign words, words, and deliberate are included.
ForQ2 1598Q3 What did Shakespeare say about time?Q4 1605Q5 1612and Q6 1622. But this method is in essence no different from the cryptogram, since Shakespeare's range of characters and plots, both familial and political, is so vast that it would be possible to find in the plays 'self-portraits' of, once more, anybody one cares to think of. The very fact that their application has produced so many rival claimants demonstrates their unreliability. Neither Shakespeare nor his operated under this assumption.
In both cases an overwhelming scholarly consensus, based on a serious assessment of hard evidence, is challenged by passionately held fantasies whose adherents demand equal time. There is no such evidence. Shakespeare's Library: Unlocking the Greatest Mystery in Literature. No books, no manuscripts, no letters, no diaries. The desire to get close to Shakespeare was unrequited, the vacuum palpable. Ogburn imagines that these records, like those of the Stratford grammar school, might have been deliberately eradicated 'because they would have showed how little consequential a figure Shakspere cut in the company.
Then a candidate is selected who fits the list. Not surprisingly, different lists find different candidates. They present his six surviving signatures as proof. No note whatsoever was taken of the passing of the man who, if the attribution is correct, would have been the greatest playwright and poet in the history of the English language. It is of the kind, as puts it, 'which is ordinarily accepted as determining the authorship of early literature.
Camden thus was aware that the last name on his list was that of William Shakespeare of Stratford. The Camden reference, therefore, is exactly what the Oxfordians insist does not exist: an identification by a knowledgeable and universally respected contemporary that 'the Stratford man' was a writer of sufficient distinction to be ranked with if after, and.
And the identification even fulfils the eccentric Oxfordian ground-rule that it be earlier than 1616. Indeed, Dugdale's sketch gave Hollar few details to work What did Shakespeare say about time?. As with other sketches in his collection, Dugdale made no attempt to draw a facial likeness, but appears to have sketched one of his standard faces to depict a man with facial hair. Consequently, Hollar invented the facial features for Shakespeare.
The conclusion is obvious: in the absence of an accurate and detailed model, Hollar freely improvised his image of Shakespeare's monument. He probably picked up many of his ideas from conversation. If he needed legal knowledge it was easier to extract this from Inns-of-Court drinkers in the Devil Tavern than to search volumes of precedents.
I really would like Edward de Vere to be the author of the plays and poems. Thus, I had hoped that the current study might strengthen the case on behalf of the Oxfordian attribution.
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