Question: What parts of Africa did the French colonize?

By the early years of the twentieth century the French held most of what would come to be their colonial territory in West Africa (including present day Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Benin, Guinea, Ivory Coast and Niger).

What parts of Africa were colonized?

A number of regions such as the Congo and the Sahara Desert had no organized states.Morocco - 1912, to France.Libya - 1911, to Italy.Fulani Empire - 1903, to France and the United Kingdom.Swaziland - 1902, to the United Kingdom.Ashanti Confederacy - 1900, to the United Kingdom.Burundi - 1899, to Germany.More items...

What regions did the French colonize?

New France, French Nouvelle-France, (1534–1763), the French colonies of continental North America, initially embracing the shores of the St. Lawrence River, Newfoundland, and Acadia (Nova Scotia) but gradually expanding to include much of the Great Lakes region and parts of the trans-Appalachian West.

Where did France colonize list?

Present-day Brazil. France Équinoxiale (Bay of São Luis) (1610–1615) ... Haiti (1627–1804)Present-day Suriname. ... Îles des Saintes (1648–present)Marie-Galante (1635–present)la Désirade (1635–present)Guadeloupe (1635–present)Martinique (1635–present)More items...

Areas of Africa controlled by in 1913 yellowsalmonblueturquoisegreenpurpleand pink Empires The Scramble for Africa, also called the Partition of Africa, or the Conquest of Africa, was the invasion, annexation, division, and by seven powers during a short period known as between 1881 and 1914. The 10 percent of Africa that was under formal European control in 1870 increased to almost 90 percent by 1914, with only Abyssinia and remaining independent, though Ethiopia would later be and by from 1936 to 1941.

The of 1884, which regulated European colonization and trade in Africa, is usually accepted as the beginning. There were considerable political rivalries among the European empires in the last quarter of the 19th century. Africa was partitioned without wars between European nations. They primarily traded with locals. Large parts of the continent were essentially uninhabitable for Europeans because of their high mortality rates from tropical diseases such as.

In the middle decades of the 19th century, European explorers mapped What parts of Africa did the French colonize? of and. Even as late as the 1870s, Europeans controlled only ten percent of the African continent, with all their territories located near the coast. The most important holdings were andheld by Portugal; theheld by Great Britain; andheld by.

By 1914, only and remained independent of European control, and Liberia had strong connections to the United States. Technological advances facilitated European expansion overseas. Industrialization brought about rapid advancements in transportation and communication, especially in the forms of steamships, railways and telegraphs.

Medical advances also played an important role, especially medicines forwhich helped control their adverse effects. The development ofan effective treatment for malaria, made vast expanses of the tropics more accessible for Europeans. During a time when Britain's showed a growing deficit, with shrinking and increasingly continental markets due to the 1873—96Africa offered Britain, Germany, France, and other countries an open market that would garner them a : a market that bought more from the colonial power than it sold overall.

Surplus capital was often more profitably invested overseas, where cheap materials, limited competition, and abundant raw materials made a greater premium possible. Another inducement for imperialism arose from the demand for raw materials, especially ivory, rubber, diamonds, tea, and. Additionally, Britain wanted control of areas of southern and eastern coasts of Africa for stopover ports on the route to Asia and its empire in India. But, excluding the area which became the in 1910, European nations invested relatively limited amounts of capital in Africa compared to that in other continents.

Consequently, the companies involved in tropical African commerce were relatively small, apart from 's. Rhodes had carved out for himself.

The vast interior between and the gold and diamond-rich had strategic value in securing the flow of overseas trade. Britain was under political pressure to build up lucrative markets in, and. Thus, it wanted to secure the key waterway between East and West — thecompleted in 1869. However, a theory that Britain sought to annex East Africa during the 1880 onwards, out of geo-strategic concerns connected to Egypt especially the Suez Canalhas been challenged by historians such as 1997 and Jonas F.

The scramble for African territory also reflected concern for the acquisition of military and naval bases, for strategic purposes and the exercise of power.

The growing navies, and new ships driven by steam power, required coaling stations and ports for maintenance. Defence bases were also needed for the protection of sea routes and communication lines, particularly of expensive and vital international waterways such as the Suez Canal.

Colonies with large native populations were also a source of military power; Britain and France used large numbers of and North African soldiers, respectively, in many of their colonial wars and would do so again in the coming World Wars.

In the early 1880s, was exploring the for France, at What parts of Africa did the French colonize? same time explored it on behalf ofwho would have it as his personal see section below. France occupied in May 1881, which may have convinced to join the German-Austrian in 1882, thus forming the. The same year, Britain occupied hitherto an autonomous state owing nominal to thewhich ruled over and parts of, and.

In 1884, Germany declaredthe and to be under its protection; and France occupied Guinea. Ina short-lived colony in the fort of was briefly proclaimed by in 1889. Chancellor disliked colonies but gave in to popular and elite pressure in the 1880s.

He sponsored the 1884—85which set the rules of effective control of African territories, and reduced the risk of conflict between colonial powers. Bismarck used private companies to set up small colonial operations in Africa and the Pacific.

In the beginning of the 1880s, the Deutscher Kolonialverein was created, and published the Kolonialzeitung. This colonial lobby was also relayed by the nationalist. Germany became the third-largest colonial power in Africa, the location of most of its 2. The African possessions were Southwest Africa, Togoland, the Cameroons, and Tanganyika. Germany tried to isolate France in 1905 with the. This led to the 1905What parts of Africa did the French colonize?

which France's influence on Morocco was compensated by the exchange of other territories, and What parts of Africa did the French colonize?

What parts of Africa did the French colonize?

to the in 1911. Italy sought to expand its territory and become a great power, of parts of in 1870 and 1882. In 1889—90, it occupied territory on the south side of the horn of Africa, forming what would become.

When relations between Italy and Ethiopia deteriorated, the broke out in 1895; Italian troops were defeated as the Ethiopians had numerical superiority, better organization, and support from Russia and France.

In 1911, it engaged in ain which it acquired andthat together formed what became known as. In 1919 developed the concept of Proletarian Nationalism, supposed to legitimise Italy's imperialism by a mixture of with : We must start by recognizing the fact that there are proletarian nations as well as proletarian classes; that is to say, there are nations whose living conditions are subject.

Scramble for Africa

Once this is realised, nationalism must insist firmly on this truth: Italy is, materially and morally, a proletarian nation. The 1935—36ordered by the Fascist dictatorwas the last colonial war that is, intended to colonise a country, as opposed tooccupying — which had remained the last independent African territory, apart from Liberia.

The occupation is an example of the expansionist policy that characterized the as opposed to the Scramble for Africa. Portugal, which also claimed the area due to old treaties with the nativemade a treaty with Britain on 26 What parts of Africa did the French colonize?

1884 to block off the Congo Society's access to the Atlantic. By 1890 the Congo Free State had consolidated its control of its territory between andand was looking to push south down the from Stanleyville. At the same time, the of was expanding north from thesending the guided by throughand starting a colony in. To the west, in the land where their expansions would meet, wassite of the of.

Msiri was the most militarily powerful ruler in the area, and traded large quantities of copper, ivory and slaves — and rumors of gold reached European ears. The scramble for Katanga was a prime example of the period. First, the could only extract a vaguely worded letter. The well-armed was given orders to take Katanga with or without Msiri's consent. Thus, the half million square kilometres of Katanga came into Leopold's possession and brought his African realm up to 2,300,000 square kilometres 890,000 sq miabout 75 times larger than Belgium.

From 1885 to 1908, were perpetrated in the ; in the image Native Congo Free State labourers who failed to meet rubber collection quotas punished by having their hands cut off.

Estimates of the total death toll vary considerably. As the first census did not take place until 1924, it is difficult to quantify the population loss of the period. There is, of course, no way of ascertaining the population of the Congo before the twentieth century, and estimates like 20 million are purely guesses. Most of the interior of the Congo was literally unexplored if not inaccessible. A similar situation occurred in the neighbouringwhere most of the resource extraction was run by concession companies, whose brutal methods, along with the introduction of disease, resulted in the loss of up to 50 percent of the indigenous population according to Hochschild.

The French government appointed a commission, headed by de Brazza, in 1905 to investigate the rumoured abuses in the colony. In the 1920s, about 20,000 forced labourers died building a railroad through the French territory.

Some sources estimate the workforce at 30,000, but others estimate that 120,000 workers died over the ten years of construction due to malnutrition, fatigue and disease, especially. Shortly before its completion in 1869, Khedive Isma'il borrowed enormous sums from British and French bankers at What parts of Africa did the French colonize?

rates of interest. By 1875, he was facing financial difficulties and was forced to sell his block of shares in the Suez Canal. The shares were snapped up by Britain, under its, who sought to give his country practical control in the management of this strategic waterway.

When Isma'il repudiated Egypt's foreign debt in 1879, Britain and France seized joint financial control over the country, forcing the Egyptian ruler to abdicate, and installing his eldest son in his place.

The Egyptian and Sudanese ruling classes did not relish foreign intervention. In 1881, the erupted in Sudan undersevering Tewfik's authority in Sudan. The same year, Tewfik suffered an even more perilous rebellion by his own Egyptian army in the form of the.

What parts of Africa did the French colonize?

In 1882, Tewfik appealed for direct British military assistance, commencing Britain's administration of Egypt. A joint British-Egyptian military force entered in the Mahdist War.

Additionally the province of located in led by was also subject to an ostensible against Mahdist forces. The British-Egyptian force ultimately defeated the Mahdist forces in Sudan in 1898. Thereafter, Britain seized effective control of Sudan, which was nominally called.

In 1884, convened the 1884—85 Berlin Conference to discuss the African problem. While diplomatic discussions were held regarding ending the remaining as well as the reach of missionary activities - the primary concern of those in attendance was preventing war between the European powers as they divided the continent among themselves.

More importantly, the diplomats in laid down the rules of competition by which the great powers were to be guided in seeking colonies. They also agreed that the area along the Congo River was to be administered by as a neutral area, known as the Congo Free State, in which trade and navigation were to be free. No nation was to stake claims in Africa without notifying other powers of its intentions. What parts of Africa did the French colonize?

territory could be formally claimed prior to being effectively occupied. However, the competitors ignored the rules when convenient and on several occasions war was only narrowly avoided.

The territories of the were also partitioned between Germany and Britain, initially leaving the archipelago of independent until 1890, when that remnant of the Sultanate was made into a British protectorate with the. Egypt was taken over by the British in 1882 leaving the Ottoman Empire in a nominal role until 1914, when London made it a protectorate.

Egypt was never an actual British colony. In 1879, after theBritain consolidated its control of most of the territories of. The Boers protested, and in December 1880 they revolted, leading to the 1880—81. British Prime Minister signed a peace treaty on 23 March 1881, giving self-government to the in the Transvaal. The of 1895 was a failed attempt by the British South Africa Company and the to overthrow the Boer government in the Transvaal.

Thefought between 1899 and 1902, was about control of the gold and diamond industries; the independent Boer republics of the and the South African Republic or Transvaal were this time defeated and absorbed into the British Empire. The French thrust into the African interior was mainly from the coasts of present-day eastward, through the along the southern border of the Sahara, a huge desert covering most of present-day,and. Their ultimate aim was to have an uninterrupted colonial empire from the to the Nile, thus controlling all trade to and from the Sahel region, by virtue of their existing control over the Caravan routes through the Sahara.

The British, on the other hand, wanted to link their possessions in present-day South Africa, andwith their territories in present-dayand these two What parts of Africa did the French colonize? with the Nile basin. This fundamentalist group of Muslim dervishes overran much of and British forces. The Sudan which included most of present-day Uganda was the key to the fulfillment of these ambitions, especially since Egypt was already under British control. Though hampered by German occupation of until the end of World War I, Rhodes successfully lobbied on behalf of such a sprawling African empire.

If one draws a line from to Rhodes's dreamand one from to the now, and Somaliathe French ambitionthese two lines intersect somewhere in eastern Sudan nearexplaining its strategic importance. In short, Britain had sought to extend its East African empire contiguously from Cairo to thewhile France had sought to extend its own holdings from Dakar to the Sudan, which would enable its empire to span the entire continent from the to the. The French withdrew and continued to press claims to other posts in the region.

In March 1899, the French and British agreed that the source of the Nile and should mark the frontier between their spheres of influence. The 1898which saw London and Paris angry with each other's claims, ultimately led to the signature of the of 1904, which guaranteed peace between the two.

As a result, the German Kaiser decided to test the solidity of such influence, using the contested territory of as a battlefield. France's influence in Morocco had been reaffirmed by Britain and Spain in 1904. The Kaiser's speech bolstered French nationalism, and with British support the French foreign minister,took a defiant line. The crisis peaked in mid-June 1905, when What parts of Africa did the French colonize?

was forced out of the ministry by the more conciliation-minded premier. But by July 1905 Germany was becoming isolated and the French agreed to a conference to solve the crisis. The Moroccanwho led the resistance to French expansionism during the The 1906 was called to settle the dispute. Of the thirteen nations present, the German representatives found their only supporter waswhich had no interest in Africa.

The Germans eventually accepted an agreement, signed on 31 May 1906, whereby France yielded certain domestic changes in Morocco but retained control of key areas. However, five years later the Second Moroccan Crisis or was sparked by the deployment of the German gunboat to the port of in July 1911.

Germany had started to attempt to match Britain's — the British navy had a policy of remaining larger than the next two rival fleets in the world combined. When the British heard of the Panther 's arrival in Morocco, they wrongly believed that the Germans meant to turn Agadir into a naval base on the Atlantic.

The German move was aimed at reinforcing claims for compensation for acceptance of effective French control of the kingdom, where France's pre-eminence had been upheld by the 1906 Algeciras Conference. In November 1911 a compromise was reached under which Germany accepted France's position in Morocco in return for slice of territory in the colony of now the. Furthermore, British backing for France during the two Moroccan crises reinforced the Entente between the two countries and added to Anglo-German estrangement, deepening the divisions that would culminate in the First World War.

Theled byexisted for 21 years, from 1899 until 1920. The Dervish movement successfully repulsed the British Empire four times and forced it to retreat to the coastal region. Due to these successful expeditions, the Dervish movement was recognized as an ally What parts of Africa did the French colonize? the and empires. The also named Hassan of the Somali nation, and the Germans promised to officially recognise any territories the Dervishes were to acquire.

After a quarter of a century of holding the British at bay, the as a direct consequence of Britain's use of aircraft. In both territories the threat to German rule was quickly defeated once large-scale reinforcements from Germany arrived, with the Herero rebels in German South-West Africa being defeated at the and the Maji-Maji rebels in German East Africa being steadily crushed by German forces slowly advancing through the countryside, with the natives resorting to guerrilla warfare.

German efforts to clear the bush of civilians in German South-West Africa then resulted in a. In total, as many as 65,000 Herero 80% of the total Herero populationand 10,000 Namaqua 50% of the total Namaqua population either starved, died of thirst, or were worked to death in camps such as between 1904 and 1908. Characteristic of this genocide was death from starvation, thirst, and possibly the poisoning of the population's wells, whilst they were trapped in the.

Some pygmies would be exposed insuch as displayed by in the. In its earlier stages, imperialism was generally the act of individual explorers as well as some adventurous merchantmen. The colonial powers were a long way from approving without any dissent the expensive adventures carried out abroad. What parts of Africa What parts of Africa did the French colonize? the French colonize? important political leaders, such asopposed colonization in its first years. However, during his second premiership between 1880 and 1885 he could not resist the colonial lobby in his cabinet, and thus did not execute his electoral promise to disengage from Egypt.

Clemenceau actually made 's cabinet fall after the 1885. According to in 1951this expansion of national sovereignty on overseas territories contradicted the unity of the which provided citizenship to its population. Some, in colonizing countries, opposed what they saw as unnecessary evils of the colonial administration when left to itself; as described in 's 1899 — published around the same time as 's — or in 's 1932.

Colonial lobbies emerged to legitimise the Scramble for Africa and other expensive overseas adventures. In Germany, France, and Britain, the middle class often sought strong overseas policies to ensure the market's growth.

A hallmark of the French colonial project in the late 19th century and early 20th century was the mission civilisatricethe principle that it was Europe's duty to bring civilisation to benighted peoples. As such, colonial officials undertook a policy of Franco-Europeanisation in French colonies, most notably and.

In most cases, the elected deputies were white Frenchmen, although there were some black deputies, such as the Senegalesewho was elected in 1914.

However, by the end of World War I the colonial empires had become very popular almost everywhere in Europe: had been convinced of the needs of a colonial empire, although most of the metropolitans would never see a piece of it. Thus, conquests of territories were inevitably followed by public displays of the for scientific and leisure purposes. In 1876, he sent one of his collaborators to the newly conquered Egyptian Sudan to bring back some wild beasts and. Presented in Paris, London, and Berlin these Nubians were very successful.

Not used to the climatic conditions, some of the indigenous exposed died, such as some in Paris in 1892. The public of the Jardin d'acclimatation doubled, with a million paying entrances that year, a huge success for these times.

The epidemic in Africa was arrested due to mobile teams systematically screening millions of people at risk. In the 1880s cattle brought from British Asia to feed Italian soldiers invading Eritrea turned What parts of Africa did the French colonize? to be infected with a disease called rinderpest. Rinderpest continued to infect 90% of Africa's cattle. African cattle was severely damaged, destroying the African livelihood, forcing them to work as labour for their colonizers.

In the 20th century, Africa saw the biggest increase in its population due to lessening of the in many countries due to peace, famine relief,and above all, the end or decline of the slave trade. Africa's population has grown from 120 million in 1900 to over 1 billion today. It was the central theme of the.

During the Scramble for Africa, an early but secondary focus of all was the suppression of slavery and the slave trade. In French West Africa, following conquest and abolition by the French, over a million slaves fled from their masters to earlier homes between 1906 and 1911.

In Madagascar, the French abolished slavery in 1896 and approximately 500,000 slaves were freed. Slavery was abolished in the French controlled Sahel by 1911.

What parts of Africa did the French colonize?

Independent nations attempting to westernize or impress Europe sometimes cultivated an image of slavery suppression. In response to European pressure, the abolished slavery in 1900 and Ethiopia officially abolished slavery in 1932. Colonial powers were mostly successful in abolishing slavery, though slavery remained active in Africa even though it has gradually moved to a economy.

Slavery was never fully eradicated in Africa. Europe's formal holdings now included the entire What parts of Africa did the French colonize? continent except, andthe latter of which would be integrated into. Between 1885 and 1914, Britain took nearly 30% of Africa's population under its control; 15% for France, 11% for Portugal, 9% for Germany, 7% for Belgium and 1% for. In terms of surface area occupied, the French were the marginal leaders but much of their territory consisted of the sparsely populated.

The tensions between the imperial powers led to a succession of crises, which finally exploded in August 1914, when previous rivalries and alliances created a domino situation that drew the major European nations into World War I.

The British were primarily interested in maintaining secure communication lines towhich led to initial interest in and. Once these two areas were secure, it was the intent of British colonialists such as to establish a Cape-Cairo railway and to exploit mineral and agricultural resources. Control of the was viewed as a strategic and commercial advantage. Liberia was founded, colonised, established and controlled by thea private organisation established in order to relocate freed and Caribbean slaves from the United States and the Caribbean islands in 1822.

Liberia declared its independence from the American Colonization Society on July 26, 1847. Liberia is Africa's oldest republic, and the second-oldest black republic in the world after.

Liberia maintained its independence during the period as it was viewed by European powers as either a colony or of the United States. With the exception of Italian occupation between 1936 and What parts of Africa did the French colonize? by 's military forces, Ethiopia is Africa's oldest independent nation. In most cases, the bulk of a nation's economy relied on or. These scholars claim that the decolonisation process kept independent African nations at the mercy of colonial powers due to structurally dependent economic relations.

They also claim that structural adjustment programs led to the privatization and liberalization of many African political and economic systems, forcefully pushing Africa into the global capitalist market, and that these factors led to development under Western ideological systems of economics and politics.

These are nations with an economic and political partnership between transnational oil companies and the ruling elite class in oil-rich African nations. Numerous countries have entered into a neo-imperial relationship with Africa during this time period. Chinese and other Asian countries state oil companies have entered Africa's highly competitive oil sector.

Furthermore, the Sudan exports 50—60% of its domestically produced oil tomaking up 7% of China's imports. China has also been purchasing equity shares in African oil fields, invested in industry related infrastructure development and acquired continental oil concessions throughout Africa.

The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History. Denny, Africa and the Victorians, London, 1965, p. The Oxford Illustrated History of the First World War: New Edition 2nd ed. In 1914 the only independent states in Africa were Liberia and Abyssinia.

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Colonial empire

Bismarck, Europe and Africa: The Berlin Africa conference 1884-1885 and the onset of partition Oxford University Press, 1988. New York and London: G. Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Mkuki na Nyota Publishers. The Middle East in the Twentieth Century. Journal of Southern African Studies. Der Hereroaufstand von 1904 in German. Empire, Colony, Genocide: Conquest, What parts of Africa did the French colonize?

and Subaltern Resistance in World History. From Conquest to Genocide: Colonial Rule in German Southwest Africa and German East Africa. The Imperialist Imagination: German Colonialism and Its Legacy. Diaspora and Memory: Figures of Displacement in Contemporary Literature, Arts and Politics. Thamyris, Intersecting Place, Sex and Race, Issue 13. MacKenzie, Developing Africa: Concepts and practices in twentieth-century colonialism Manchester University Press, 2016.

Images and empires: visuality in colonial and postcolonial Africa U of California Press, 2002. The Journal of African History. A Concise Economic What parts of Africa did the French colonize? of the World. New York: Oxford University Press. Slavery and African Life: Occidental, Oriental, and African Slave Trades. Transformations of Slavery: A History of Slavery in Africa. Benedetta Rossi Liverpool:200929. A New Scramble For Africa? Italian colonialism 2005 : 15—26. The scramble for Africa: causes and dimensions of empire Heath, 1972short excerpts from historians.

The scramble for Africa 4th ed. Britain and Germany in Africa: Imperial rivalry and colonial rule 1967. Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History. The New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. Nordic Journal of African Studies, 2, no. Empire: the history of the British Empire 2001. European Imperialism and the Partition of Africa London, 1975.

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