- Is Dagenham classed as London?
- Is Dagenham a London borough?
- What zone is Dagenham?
- Is Dagenham in the East End of London?
- Is Dagenham safe?
- Where is the border between Essex and London?
- Does Dagenham have a tube station?
- What zone is Stratford?
- Is Stratford London safe?
- Which zone is Romford?
- Is Stratford Zone 1?
Barking and Dagenham, outer borough of London, England, on the eastern perimeter of the metropolis. It is part of the historic county of Essex, on the north bank of the River Thames.
Is Dagenham classed as London?Dagenham (/ˈdæɡənəm/) is a town in East London, England, within the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham. It is adjacent to Barking to the west, Romford and Hornchurch to the north-east, and Rainham to the south-east, and Dagenham Dock, on the River Thames, is to the south.
Is Dagenham a London borough?London Borough of Barking and Dagenham Dagenham/London boroughs
What zone is Dagenham?Dagenham East tube stationDagenham EastLocal authorityLondon Borough of Barking and DagenhamManaged byLondon UndergroundNumber of platforms3Fare zone525 more rows
Is Dagenham in the East End of London?It broadly comprises the London boroughs of Barking and Dagenham, Hackney, Havering, Newham, Redbridge, Tower Hamlets and Waltham Forest. ... The East End of London is a subset of East London, consisting of areas close to the ancient City of London.
Is Dagenham safe?Crime and Safety in Barking and Dagenham Barking and Dagenham is among the top 20 most dangerous cities in London, and is among the top 20 most dangerous overall out of Londons 33 towns, villages, and cities. The overall crime rate in Barking and Dagenham in 2020 was 87 crimes per 1,000 people.
Where is the border between Essex and London?Essex has London and Hertfordshire on its western border and the whole of the east of the county is coast-line. The north of the county borders Suffolk and Cambridgeshire. The south of the county is on the Thames Estuary....Essex.GeographyStatusCeremonial & (smaller) Non-metropolitan countyRegionEast of England15 more rows
Does Dagenham have a tube station?Dagenham Heathway is a London Underground station serving the town of Dagenham in the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham, east London. It is on the District line between Becontree and Dagenham East.
What zone is Stratford?Eight stations including Stratford and West Ham have been rezoned from Zone 3 to Zone 2/3. It means the stations will be regarded in Zone 2 or 3 depending on which way the passenger is travelling, giving the cheapest travel option for the journey.
Is Stratford London safe?Stratford has a high violent crime rate and a high property crime rate for London.
Which zone is Romford?Zone 6 Its three-letter station code is RMF and it is in Travelcard Zone 6. The station is currently managed by TfL Rail.
Is Stratford Zone 1?Transport for London Stratford, Stratford High Street, Stratford International DLR, West Ham, Canning Town, Star Lane and Abbey Road are now in zone 2/3. Kennington is in zone 1/2.
It stands on the in south-east England at the head of a Is Dagenham Essex or London? 80 km down to theand has been a major settlement for two millennia. Theits ancient core andwas founded by the as and retains boundaries close to its medieval ones. Theto the west of the City of London, has for centuries held the national and.
As one of the world's majorLondon exerts strong influence on its arts, commerce, Is Dagenham Essex or London?, entertainment,finance, health care,tourism, and communications, and has been before.
In 2019 it had the second-highest number of in Europe after Paris and the in Europe after Moscow. As of 2021, London has the most millionaires of any city. With Europe's largest concentration of higher education institutions, it includes in andthe inand the comprehensive.
The city is home to the most 5-star hotels of any city in the world. InLondon became the first city to host three. London's diverse cultures encompass over 300 languages. The mid-2018 population of of about 9 million made it Europe'saccounting for 13. The is the in Europe after Istanbul's and Moscow's, with about 14 million inhabitants in 2016, granting London the status of a. London has four : the ; ; the combined, and ; and also the historic settlement inwhere the defines the 0° and.
Other landmarks includethe, and. It hasgalleries, libraries andincluding the,and West End theatre. The is the oldest system in the world. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythically based explanations. The earliest attested appears in 'swritten around 1136. Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources: usually Londiniumusually Lundenand usually Llundeinwith reference Is Dagenham Essex or London?
the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. This was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into. The toponymy of the form is debated. However, most work has accepted a plain Celtic origin. History Main articles: and Prehistory In 1993, remains of a bridge were found on the south foreshore Is Dagenham Essex or London? from. This either crossed the Thames or reached a now-lost island in it. The function of the structure is unclear. Both structures are Is Dagenham Is Dagenham Essex or London?
or London? the Is Dagenham Essex or London? bank of the Thames, where the now-underground flows into the Thames. Roman London In 1300, the was still confined within the. The next planned incarnation of prospered, superseding as capital of the of in 100. At its height in the 2nd century, Roman London had a population of about 60,000. Anglo-Saxon and Viking-period London With the early 5th-century collapse of Roman rule, London ceased to be a capital and the walled city of was effectively abandoned, although continued around until about 450.
From about 500, an settlement known as developed slightly west of the old Roman city. By about 680 the city had become a major port again, but there is little evidence of large-scale production. From the 820s repeated assaults brought decline.
Three are recorded; those in 851 and 886 succeeded, while the last, in 994, was rebuffed. The siege of London in 1471 is attacked by a sally. The applied over much of eastern and northern England, its boundary running roughly from London to as an area of political and geographical control imposed by the incursions formally agreed by theand the king in 886.
Archaeological research shows this involved abandonment of and a revival of life and trade within the old Roman walls. London then grew slowly until a dramatic increase in about 950. By the 11th century, London was clearly the largest town in England. After winning thewas crowned in newly completed on Christmas Day 1066. William built thethe first of many such in England rebuilt in stone in the south-eastern corner of the city, to intimidate the inhabitants.
In 1097, began buildingclose by the abbey of the same name. It became the basis of a new. In the 12th century, the institutions of central government, which had hitherto followed the royal English court around the country, grew in size and sophistication and became increasingly fixed, for most purposes atalthough the royal treasury, having been moved fromcame to rest in the. While the developed into a true governmental capital, its distinct neighbour, theremained England's largest city and principal commercial centre and flourished under its own unique administration, the.
In 1100, its population was some 18,000; by 1300 it had grown Is Dagenham Essex or London? nearly 100,000. Disaster struck in the form of the in the mid-14th century, when London lost nearly a third of its population.
London was the focus of the in 1381. London was also a centre of England's before their by in 1290. Violence against Jews occurred in 1190, when it was rumoured that the new king had ordered their massacre after they had presented themselves at his coronation. In 1264 during the's rebels killed 500 Jews while attempting to seize records of debts. Early modern Map of London in 1593. There is only one bridge across the Thames, but parts of Southwark on the south bank of the river have been developed.
During the the produced a gradual shift to. Much of London property passed from church to private ownership, which accelerated trade and business in the city. In 1475, the set up a main trading base of England in London, called the Stalhof or. It remained until 1853, when the Hanseatic cities ofand sold the Is Dagenham Essex or London? to. Yet English maritime enterprise hardly reached beyond the seas of north-west Europe. The commercial route to Italy and the was normally through and over the ; any ships passing through the to or from England were likely to be Italian or.
The reopening of the Netherlands to English shipping in January 1565 spurred a burst of commercial activity. London became the main port, with migrants arriving from England and abroad. The population rose from about 50,000 in 1530 to about 225,000 in 1605.
In the 16th century and his contemporaries lived in London at a time of hostility to the development of the. By the end of the Tudor period in 1603, London was still compact. There was an assassination attempt on in Is Dagenham Essex or London?, in the of 5 November 1605. The defensiveplanned during thec. In 1637, the government of attempted to reform administration in the London area.
This called for the Corporation of the city to extend its jurisdiction and administration over expanding areas Is Dagenham Essex or London?
the city. In the English Civil War the majority of Londoners supported the cause. After an initial advance by the in 1642, culminating in the battles of andLondon was surrounded by a defensive perimeter wall known as the. The lines were built by up to 20,000 people, and were completed in under two months.
The fortifications failed their only test when the entered London in 1647, and they were levelled by Parliament the same year. London was by disease in the early 17th century, culminating in the of 1665—1666, which killed up to 100,000 people, or a fifth of Is Dagenham Essex or London?
population. The destroyed many parts of the city in 1666. The broke out in 1666 in Pudding Lane in the city and quickly swept through the wooden buildings. Rebuilding took over ten years and was supervised by as Surveyor of London. In 1708 's masterpiece,was completed.
During thenew districts such as were formed in the west; new bridges over the Thames encouraged development in. In the east, the expanded downstream. London's development as an international matured for much of the 18th century. In 1762, acquiredwhich was enlarged over the next 75 years. During the 18th century, London was said to be dogged by crime, and the were established in 1750 as a professional police force.
A total of more than 200 offences were punishable by death, including petty theft. Most children born in the city died before reaching their third birthday. View to the in the City of London in 1886 became a popular place to debate ideas, as growing and development of the made news widely available, with becoming the centre of the British press. Is Dagenham Essex or London? invasion of Amsterdam by Napoleonic armies led many financiers to relocate to London and the first London international issue was arranged in 1817.
Around the same time, the became the world's leading war fleet, acting as Is Dagenham Essex or London? major deterrent to potential economic adversaries. The repeal of the in 1846 was specifically aimed at weakening Dutch economic power. London then overtook Amsterdam as the leading international financial centre. According to Samuel Johnson: You find no man, at all intellectual, who is willing to leave London. No, Sir, when a man is tired of London, he is tired of life; for there is in London all that life can afford.
London's overcrowded conditions led to epidemics, claiming 14,000 lives in 1848, and 6,000 in 1866. Rising led to the creation of the world's first local urban rail network. The oversaw infrastructure expansion in the capital and some surrounding counties; it was abolished in 1889 when the was created out of county areas surrounding the capital. The city was the target of many attacks during an early campaign, thebetween 1912 and 1914, which saw historic landmarks such as and bombed.
A bombed-out London street duringLondon was in theand during theand other bombings by the German killed over 30,000 Londoners, destroying large tracts of housing and other buildings across the city. The were Is Dagenham Essex or London? at the originalwhile London was still recovering from the war. From the 1940s, London became home to many immigrants, primarily from countries such as Jamaica, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, making London one of the most diverse cities in the world.
In 1951, the was held on the. Starting mainly in the mid-1960s, London became a centre for worldwideexemplified by the sub-culture associated with theand. The role of trendsetter revived in the era. In 1965 London's political boundaries were expanded in response to the growth of the urban area and a new was created. During in Northern Ireland, London was hit in 1973 to bomb attacks by thefor two decades, starting with the.
Racial inequality was highlighted by the. Greater London's population declined in the decades after the Second World War, Is Dagenham Essex or London? an estimated peak of 8. The principal ports for London moved downstream to andwith the area becoming a focus for regeneration, including the development. This was borne out of London's increasing role as an international financial centre in the 1980s.
The was completed in the 1980s to protect London against tidal surges from the. The Greater London Council was abolished in 1986, leaving London with no central administration until 2000 and the creation of the. To mark the 21st century, theand were constructed. On 6 July 2005 London was awarded theas the first city to stage the three times. On 7 July 2005, three trains and a double-decker bus were bombed in a. In 2008, named London alongside New York City and Hong Kong ashailing them as the world's three most influential.
In January 2015, Greater London's population was estimated to be 8. Administration Local government : Argent, a cross gules in the first quarter a sword in pale point upwards of the last; : Two dragons with wings elevated and addorsed argent on each wing a cross gules; : On a dragon's wing displayed a cross gules The administration of London is formed of two tiers: a citywide, strategic tier and a local Is Dagenham Essex or London?.
The mayor since 2016 has beenthe first mayor of a major Western capital. The mayor's strategy is published as thewhich was most recently revised in 2011.
The local authorities are the councils Is Dagenham Essex or London? the 32 and the. They are responsible for most local services, such as local planning, schools,local roads and refuse collection. Certain functions, such asare provided through joint arrangements. The is the for Greater London, run by the. It is the third largest fire service in the world. National government London is the seat of the. Many government departments, as well as the residence atare based close to theparticularly along.
As of December 201949 are from the21 areand three are. The ministerial post of was created in 1994. The City of London has its own police force — the.
The are responsible for police services on, and services. The is a special police force in London, which does not generally become involved with policing the general public. Crime rates vary widely across different areas of London. Crime figures are made available nationally at and level. In 2015, Is Dagenham Essex or London? were 118 homicides, a 25. The Metropolitan Police have made detailed crime figures, broken down by category at borough and ward level, available on their website since 2000.
Recorded crime has been rising in London, notably violent crime and murder by stabbing and other means have risen. There were 50 murders from the start of 2018 to mid April 2018.
Funding cuts to police in London are likely to have contributed to this, though other factors are also involved. Geography Satellite view of London in June 2018also known as Greater London, is one of nine and the top subdivision covering most of the city's metropolis. The London telephone 020 covers a larger area, similar in size to Greater London, although some outer districts are excluded and some just outside included.
The Greater London boundary has been in places. Further urban expansion is now prevented by thealthough the built-up area extends beyond the boundary in places, producing a separately defined. Beyond this is the vast. Greater London is split for some purposes into andand by the River Thames into andwith an informal area. The coordinates of the nominal centre of London, traditionally the original at near the junction of andare about.
However, the geographical centre of London on one definition is in the0. Status Within London, both the City Is Dagenham Essex or London? London and the have and both the City of London and the remainder of Greater London are. The area of includes areas that are part of the ofKent,Essex and.
London's status as the capital of England, and later the United Kingdom, has never been granted or confirmed officially—by statute or in written form. Its position was formed throughmaking its status as de facto capital a part of the. The capital of England was moved to London from as the developed in the 12th and 13th centuries to become the permanent location of theand thus the political capital of the nation.
More recently, Greater London has been defined as a and in this context is known as London. Modern London stands on theits primary geographical feature, a river which crosses the city from the south-west to the east.
The is a surrounded by gently rolling hills including, and. Historically London grew up at the on the Thames. The Thames was once a much broader, shallower river with extensive Is Dagenham Essex or London? at high tide, its shores reached five times their present width. Since the the Thames has been extensivelyand many of its London now flow. The Thames is a tidal river, and London is vulnerable to flooding.
The threat has increased over time because of a slow but continuous rise in level caused by and by the Is Dagenham Essex or London? 'tilting' of the British Isles up in Scotland and Northern Ireland and down in southern parts of England, Wales and Ireland as a result of.
In 1974 a decade of work began on the construction of the across the Thames at to deal with this threat. While the barrier is expected to function as designed until roughly 2070, concepts for its future enlargement or redesign are already being discussed.
London has had a small number of earthquakes over the years. Notably, those of 1750, which macroseismic information dictates were clearly epicentered directly under the city. In 2018, two active faults were discovered running parallel to each other, directly under the centre of the city. Furthermore, the city has been damaged at least twice including fatalites in the earthquakes of 1382 and 1580. Those earthquakes being epicentered under the English channel. London's building code is being redrawn so that every new structure must be able to withstand an earthquake of at least 6.
Rainfall records have been kept in the city since at least 1697, when records began at. At Kew, the most rainfall in one month is 7. Mile End also had 0 inches 0 mm in April 1893.
The wettest year on record is 1903, with a total fall of 38. The average annual precipitation amounts to about 600 mm, which is half the annual rainfall ofbut also lower than, and.
Despite its relatively low annual precipitation, London still receives 109. However, London is vulnerable toand there is increasing concern among experts that London households may run out of water before 2050. Temperature extremes in London range from 38.
Records for have been kept at London since 1692. The highest pressure ever reported is 1,049. Summers are generally warm, sometimes hot. London's average July high is 23. On average each year, London experiences 31 days above 25 °C 77. During the prolonged heat led to Is Dagenham Essex or London? of heat-related deaths. There was also a previous spell of 15 consecutive days above 32. A previous temperature of 37.
Droughts can also, occasionally, be a problem, especially in summer. Most recently in Summer 2018 and with much drier than average conditions prevailing from May to December.
However, the most consecutive days without rain was 73 days in the spring of 1893. Winters are generally cool with little temperature variation. Heavy snow is rare but snow usually falls at least once each winter. Spring and autumn can be pleasant. As a large city, London has a considerable effect, making the centre of London at times 5 °C 9 °F warmer than the suburbs and outskirts.
This can be seen below when comparing London Heathrow, 15 miles 24 km west of London, with the London Weather Centre. Climate data for Londonelevation: 25 m 82 ft1991—2020 normals Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C °F 17. Climate data forelevation: 47 m 154 ft1991—2020 normals Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C °F 14.
These are either informal designations, reflect the names of villages that have been absorbed by sprawl, or are superseded administrative units such as parishes or. Such names have remained in use through tradition, each referring to a local area with its own distinctive character, but without official boundaries.
Since 1965 Greater London has been divided Is Dagenham Essex or London? 32 in addition to the ancient City of London. The City of London is the main financial district, and has recently developed into a new financial and commercial hub in the to the east. The is London's main entertainment and shopping district, attracting tourists. The is the area closest to the original Is Dagenham Essex or London?, known for its high immigrant population, as well as for being one of the poorest areas in London.
The surrounding area saw much of London's early industrial development; now, sites throughout the area are being redeveloped as part of the including the andwhich was developed into the for the. Architecture Trafalgar Square and its fountains, with Nelson's Column on the right London's buildings are too diverse to be characterised by any particular architectural style, partly because of their varying ages.
Many grand houses and public buildings, such as theare constructed from. Some areas of the city, particularly those just west of the centre, are characterised by white or whitewashed buildings. Few structures in central London pre-date the of 1666, Is Dagenham Essex or London? being a few trace remains, the and a few scattered survivors in the city.
Further out is, for example, theEngland's oldest surviving Tudor palace, built by Cardinal in about 1515. Part of the varied architectural heritage are the 17th-century churches byneoclassical financial institutions such as the and theto the early 20th century and the 1960s.
The density of London varies, with high employment density in the andhigh residential densities inand lower densities in.
The truth about whether Dagenham is in London or Essex
Older buildings are mainly brick built, most commonly the yellow or a warm orange-red variety, often decorated with carvings and white plaster. In the dense areas, most of the concentration is via medium- and high-rise buildings.
London's skyscrapers, such as, the andare mostly in the two financial districts, the City of London and. High-rise development is restricted at certain sites if it would obstruct protected views of and other historic Is Dagenham Essex or London?.
Nevertheless, there are a number of tall skyscrapers in central London seeincluding the 95-storeythe. What was formerly theby the Thames to the east of Canary Wharf, is now an entertainment venue called the.
They indicate that 2000 species of flowering plant have been found growing there and that the supports 120 species of fish. They also state that over 60 species of bird nest in and that their members have recorded 47 species of butterfly, 1173 moths and more than 270 kinds of spider around London.
London's areas support nationally important populations of many water birds. On the other hand, native reptiles such as, andare mostly only seen in. A fox on Ayres Street,Among other inhabitants of London are 10,000so that there are now 16 foxes for every square mile 6 per square kilometre of London.
These urban foxes are noticeably bolder than their country cousins, sharing the pavement with pedestrians and raising cubs in people's backyards.
Foxes have even sneaked into thewhere one was found asleep on a filing cabinet. Generally, however, foxes and city folk appear to get along. A survey in 2001 by the London-based found that 80 per cent of 3,779 respondents who volunteered to keep a diary of garden mammal visits liked having them around.
This sample cannot be taken to represent Londoners as a whole. Other mammals found in are, mice,and. In wilder Is Dagenham Essex or London? of Outer London, such asa wide variety of mammals are found, including,and Is Dagenham Essex or London?,shrew, andin addition to red fox, grey squirrel and hedgehog. A dead was found at The Highway, inabout a mile from thewhich would suggest that they have begun to move back after being absent a hundred years from the city.
Ten of England's eighteen species of bats have been recorded in Epping Forest:and, and. Herds of and also roam freely within much of and. A cull takes place each November and February to ensure numbers can be sustained. Epping Forest is also known for itswhich can frequently be seen in herds to the north of the Forest. A rare population ofblack fallow deer is also maintained at the Deer Sanctuary near. While Londoners are accustomed to wildlife such as birds and foxes sharing the city, more recently urban deer have started becoming a regular feature, and whole herds of fallow deer come into residential areas at night to take advantage of London's green spaces.
Demography Population density map The 2011 census recorded that 2,998,264 people or 36. About 69% of children born in London in 2015 had at least one parent who was born abroad. The table to the right shows the commonest countries of birth of London residents. Note that some of the German-born population, in 18th position, are British citizens from birth born to parents serving in the in Germany. Increasing industrialisation swelled London's population throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, and for some time in the late 19th and early 20th centuries it was the most populous city in the world.
It peaked at 8,615,245 in 1939, just before the outbreak of the Second World War, but had declined to 7,192,091 by the 2001 Census. However, the population then grew by just over a million between the 2001 and 2011 Censuses, to reach 8,173,941 in the latter.
However, London's continuous urban area extends beyond Greater London and numbered 9,787,426 people in 2011, while its wider had a population of 12—14 million, depending on the definition used. According toLondon is the second in Europe. A net 726,000 immigrants arrived there in the period 1991—2001. In population terms, London is the 19th and the 18th region.
Age structure and median age Children younger than 14 constituted 20. The 15—24 age group was 11. Those aged 65 and over are 13. The of London in 2018 was 36. Ethnic groups Black According to thebased on estimates, 59.
The history of extends back to the. As of 2007, one fifth of primary school across London were from ethnic minorities. Altogether at the 2011 census, of London's 1,624,768 population aged 0 to 15, 46. In January 2005, a survey of London's ethnic and religious diversity claimed that more than 300 languages were spoken in London and more than 50 non-indigenous communities had populations of more than 10,000.
Figures from the show that in 2010London's foreign-born population was 2,650,000 33%up from 1,630,000 in 1997. The 2011 census showed that 36. Some of the German-born population were likely to be British nationals born to parents serving in the in Germany.
Estimates by the indicate that the five largest foreign-born groups living in London in the period July 2009 to June 2010 were born in India, Poland, the Republic of Ireland, Bangladesh and Nigeria. Religion Main article: According to thethe largest religious groupings were Christians 48. London has traditionally been Christian, and has aparticularly in the City of London.
The well-known in the City and Is Dagenham Essex or London? of the river are administrative centres, while theprincipal bishop of the and worldwidehas his main residence at in the.
The is the second-largest in England and Europe. Important national and royal ceremonies are shared between and. The Abbey is not to be confused with nearbywhich is the largest cathedral in. Despite the prevalence of Anglican churches, observance is low within the denomination. Church attendance continues a long, steady decline, according to Church of England statistics.
London also has sizeable Muslim, Hindu, Sikh, and Jewish communities. Notable mosques include the in Tower Hamlets, which is allowed to give the Islamic call to prayer through loudspeakers, the on the edge of and the of the.
After the oil boom, increasing numbers of wealthy Arab Muslims based themselves aroundKensington and in West London. There are large communities in the eastern boroughs of and. Large Hindu communities are found in the north-western boroughs of andthe latter hosting what was until 2006, Europe's largest.
London is also home to 44 Hindu temples, including the. There are Sikh communities in East and West London, Is Dagenham Essex or London? in Southall, home to one of the largest Sikh populations and the largest Sikh temple outside India. Is Dagenham Essex or London? majority of live in London, with notable Jewish communities in,and in. It is the only synagogue in Europe to have held regular services continually for over 300 years. The was set up in 2006 in response to the growing significance of devolved London Government.
Accents is an accent heard across London, mainly spoken by and Londoners. It is mainly attributed to the East End and wider East London, having originated there in the 18th century, although it has been suggested that the Cockney style of speech is much older. Since the turn of the century Cockney dialect Is Dagenham Essex or London? less common in parts of the East End itself, with modern strongholds including other parts of London and suburbs in the home counties.
It is widely spoken by people of all classes in London and south-eastern England, associated with the River Thames and its estuary. It is a fusion of an array of ethnic accents, in particular Afro-Caribbean and South Asian, with a significant Cockney influence. It has no specific geographical correlate, although it is also traditionally defined as the standard speech Is Dagenham Essex or London? in London and south-eastern England.
It is mainly spoken by and Londoners. Economy The City of London, one of the largest financial centres in the world London's in 2019 was £503 billion, around a quarter of. One way to get an idea of their relative importance is to Is Dagenham Essex or London?
at relative amounts of office space: Greater London had 27 million m 2 of office space in 2001, and the City contains the most space, with 8 million m 2 of office space. London is the world's most expensive office market according to world property journal 2015 report. The City of London The at and London's finance industry is based in the andthe two major in London. London is one of the pre-eminent of the world as the most important location for international finance.
London took over as a major financial centre shortly after 1795 when the Dutch Republic collapsed Is Dagenham Essex or London? the Napoleonic armies. For many bankers established in Amsterdam e. Hope, Baringthis was only time to move to London. The London financial elite was strengthened by a strong Jewish community from all over Europe capable of mastering the most sophisticated financial tools of the time.
This unique concentration of talents accelerated the transition from the Commercial Revolution to the Industrial Revolution. By the end of the 19th century, Britain was the wealthiest of all nations, and London a leading financial centre.
Kearney's 2018 Global Cities Index. Around 325,000 people were employed in financial services in London until mid-2007. London has over 480 overseas banks, more than any other city in the world. Over 85 per cent 3. Because of its prominent global role, London's economy had been affected by the.
However, by 2010 the city had recovered, put in place new regulatory powers, proceeded to regain lost ground and re-established London's economic dominance. Along with headquarters, the City of London is home to the, and insurance market. Media and technology Media companies areand the media distribution industry is London's second most competitive sector. The is a significant employer, Is Dagenham Essex or London? other broadcasters also have headquarters around the city.
Many are edited in London. London is a major retail centre and in 2010 had the highest non-food retail sales of any city in the world, with a total spend of around £64.
The is the second largest in the United Kingdom, handling 45 million of cargo each year. A growing number of technology companies are based in London, notably inalso known as Silicon Roundabout. In April 2014 the city was among the first to receive a. The gas and electricity distribution networks that manage and operate the towers, cables and pressure systems that deliver energy to consumers across the city are managed byand.
Tourism The London is one of the leading tourist destinations in the world and in 2015 was ranked as the most visited city in the world with over 65 million visits. Tourism is one of London's prime industries, employing 700,000 full-time workers in 2016, and contributes £36 billion a year to the economy.
As of 2016 London was the world top city destination as ranked by users. Transport Journeys in Greater London by mode from 1997 to 2018 Transport is one of the four main areas of policy administered by the Mayor of London, but the mayor's financial control does not extend to the longer-distance rail network that enters London. In 2007 the Mayor of London assumed responsibility for some local lines, which now form the network, adding to the existing responsibility for the London Underground, trams and buses.
The public transport network is administered by TfL. The lines that formed the London Underground, as well as trams and buses, became part of an integrated transport system in 1933 when the or was created.
Transport for London is now the statutory corporation responsible for most aspects of the transport system in Greater London, and is run by a board and a commissioner appointed by the. Aviation is the busiest airport in Europe as well as the second busiest in the world for international passenger traffic.
London is a major international air transport hub with the. Eight airports use the word London in their name, but most traffic passes through six of these. Additionally, also serve London, catering primarily to flights. In March 2008 its fifth terminal was opened. In 2014, gained from Heathrow the leading position in terms of international passenger traffic. In 2017, international passengers made up over 95% of the total at Southend, the highest proportion of any London airport. Thecommonly referred to as the Tube, is the oldest and third longest system in the world.
Over four million journeys are made every day on the Underground network, over 1 billion each year. An investment programme is attempting to reduce congestion and improve reliability, including £6. Thewhich opened in 1987, is a second, more using smaller and lighter tram-type vehicles that serve theand.
Suburban There are in the on an extensive above-ground suburban railway network. South London, particularly, has a high concentration of railways as it has fewer Underground lines.
Most rail lines terminate around the centre of London, running intowith the exception of the trains connecting in the north and in the south via and airports. London has Britain's busiest station by number of passengers—, with over 184 million Is Dagenham Essex or London?
using the interchange station complex which includes station each year. With the need for more rail capacity in London, will open in May 2022. It will be a new railway line running east to west through London and into the with a branch to.
It is Europe's biggest construction project, with a £15 billion projected cost. Inter-city and international is the main terminal for high-speed and services, as well as commuter suburban Thameslink and inter-city services. London is the centre of the network, with 70 Is Dagenham Essex or London? cent of rail journeys starting or ending in London. Like suburban rail services, regional and inter-city trains depart from several termini around the city centre, linking London with the rest of Britain includingBirmingham,Bristol,,Edinburgh,Glasgow, for,Liverpool,Manchester,, and.
London also has convenient rail connections with out of. These airports include viaviaviavia or and via. Some international railway services to were operated during Is Dagenham Essex or London? 20th century assuch as the to and the to Paris and Brussels.
The opening of the in 1994 connected London directly to the continental rail network, allowing services to begin. Since 2007, high-speed trains link with, Paris,Brussels, and other European tourist destinations via the rail link and the. The first trains started in June 2009 linking to London.
There are plans for a linking London to the Midlands, North West England, and Yorkshire. Freight Although levels are far down compared to their height, significant quantities of cargo are also carried into and out of London by rail; chiefly building materials and waste.
As a major hub of the British railway network, London's tracks also carry large amounts of freight for the other regions, such as from the Channel Tunnel and ports, and for at. Buses, coaches and trams A London's runs 24 hours a day with about 9,300 vehicles, over 675 bus routes and about 19,000 bus stops. Since 2010 and average of £1. London has one of the largest wheelchair-accessible networks in the world and from the third quarter of 2007, became more accessible to hearing and visually impaired passengers as audio-visual announcements were introduced.
London's coach hub isan building opened in Is Dagenham Essex or London?. The coach station was initially run by a group of coach companies under the name of London Coastal Coaches; however, in 1970 the service and station were included in the nationalisation of the country's coach services, becoming part of the National Bus Company.
In 1988, the coach station was purchased by London Transport which then became. The network has 39 stops and four routes, and carried 28 million people in 2013. Since June 2008, has completely owned and operated Tramlink. Cable car London's first and to date only cable car is thewhich opened in June 2012. The cable car crosses the Thames and links with the in the east of the city. It is integrated with London's Oyster Card ticketing system, although the Emirates Air Line fares are not included in the Oyster daily capping.
It cost Is Dagenham Essex or London? million to build and can carry up to 2,500 passengers per hour in each direction at peak times.
Similar to the bike hire scheme, the cable car was sponsored in a 10-year deal by the airline. Cycling Santander Cycle Hire near Victoria in Central London In the Greater London Area, around 670,000 people use a bike every day, meaning around 7% of the total population of around 8. This relatively low percentage of bicycle users may be due to the poor investments for cycling in London of about £110 million per year, equating to around £12 per person, which can be compared to £22 in the Netherlands.
Cycling has become an increasingly popular way to get around London. The launch of a in July 2010 was successful and generally well received. Port and river Is Dagenham Essex or London? Theonce the largest in the world, is now only the second-largest in the United Kingdom, handling 45 Is Dagenham Essex or London? tonnes of cargo each year as of 2009. Most of this cargo passes through theoutside the boundary of Greater London.
London has river boat services on the Thames known aswhich offer both commuter and tourist boat services. At major piers including, Battersea Power Station and Waterlooservices depart at least every 20 minutes during commuter times. Roads Although the majority of journeys in central London are made by public transport, car travel is common in the suburbs. The around the city centrethe and roads just within the suburbsand the outer orbital motorway thejust outside the built-up area in most places encircle the city and are intersected by a number of busy radial routes—but very few motorways penetrate into.
A plan for a comprehensive network of motorways throughout the city the was prepared in the 1960s but was mostly cancelled in the early Is Dagenham Essex or London?. The M25 is the second-longest ring-road motorway in Europe at 117 mi 188 km long. The and connect London toand and. London is notorious for its Is Dagenham Essex or London? congestion; in 2009, the average speed of a car in the rush hour was recorded at 10. In 2003, a was introduced to reduce traffic volumes in the city centre.
With a few exceptions, motorists are required to pay to drive within a defined zone encompassing much of central London. Motorists who are residents of the defined zone can buy a greatly reduced season pass. The London government initially expected the Congestion Charge Zone to increase daily peak period Underground Is Dagenham Essex or London?
bus users, reduce road traffic, increase traffic speeds, and reduce queues; however, the increase in private for hire vehicles has affected these expectations. Over the course of several years, the average number of cars entering the centre of London on a weekday was reduced from 195,000 to 125,000 cars — a 35-per-cent reduction of vehicles driven per day. Educationa technical research university in London is a major global centre of higher education teaching and research and has the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe.
A 2014 report termed London the global capital of higher education. A number of world-leading education institutions are based in London. In the 2021is ranked No. The has been described as the world's leading social science institution for both teaching and research. It includes five multi-faculty universities —,and — and a number of smaller and more specialised institutions includingthe, thethe London School of Economics, thethethethe and the.
Members of the University of London have their own procedures, and most award their own degrees. A number of universities in London are outside the University of London system, including,and the largest university of art, design, fashion, communication and the performing arts in Europe.
In addition there are three international universities in London —and. The front façade of the London is home to — part ofthe largest medical school in Europe, and — and has many affiliated teaching hospitals. Additionally, many biomedical and biotechnology spin out companies from these research institutions are based around the city, most prominently in.
There are a number of business schools in London, including thepart of,the and the. London is also home to many specialist arts education institutions, including the, the and. Primary and secondary education The majority of primary and secondary schools and further-education colleges in London are controlled by the or Is Dagenham Essex or London? state-funded; leading examples include,, and.
There are also a number of private schools and colleges in Is Dagenham Essex or London?, some old and famous, such as, and. Culture Leisure is a major part of the London economy. The city is one of the four of the world, and, according to official statistics, is the world's third-busiest film production centre, presents more live comedy than any other city, and has the biggest theatre audience of any city in the world.
London's is here, as are many cinemas, bars, clubs, and restaurants, including the city's district inand just to the east isan area housing speciality shops. The city is the home ofwhose musicals have dominated the West End theatre since the late 20th century. The United Kingdom's,and are based in London and perform at thethe, and theas well as touring the country. Scene of the annual2014 's 1 mile 1.
Europe's busiest shopping area isa shopping street nearly 1 mile 1. Oxford Street is home to vast numbers of retailers andincluding the world-famous. London is home to designers, andamong others; its renowned art and fashion schools make it an international centre of fashion alongside Paris,and New Is Dagenham Essex or London? City. London offers a great variety of cuisine as a result of its ethnically diverse population. Gastronomic centres include the Bangladeshi restaurants of and the restaurants of.
There is a variety ofbeginning with the relatively newa fireworks display at the ; the world's second largesttheis held on the late each year. Traditional parades include November'sa centuries-old event celebrating the annual appointment of a new with a procession along the streets of the city, and June'sa formal military pageant performed by regiments of the and armies to celebrate the.
The is a festival celebrated by the community. It is the largest open-air Asian festival Is Dagenham Essex or London? Europe. After theit is the second-largest street festival in the United Kingdom attracting over 80,000 visitors from across the country. Literature, film and television inbearing the number 221B London has been the setting for many works of literature. The pilgrims in 's late 14th-century set out for from London—specifically, from the inn.
The literary centres of London have traditionally been hilly and since the early 20th century. Writers closely associated with the city are the diaristnoted for his eyewitness account of the ;whose representation of a foggy, snowy, grimy London of street sweepers and pickpockets has been a major influence on people's vision of early London; andregarded as one of the foremost literary figures of the 20th century.
Later important depictions of London from the 19th and early 20th centuries are Dickens' novels, and 's stories. Also of significance is 's Calendar of the London Seasons 1834. The village of has historically been a literary centre in London. London has played a significant role in the film industry.
Major studios within or bordering London include,and a and community centred in. London has been the setting for films including 194819511953196119641964196619801986Is Dagenham Essex or London?200320052008 and 2010.
Notable actors Is Dagenham Essex or London? filmmakers from London include;,and. Since 2008, the have taken place at the. London is a major centre for television production, with studios includingand. Museums, art galleries and libraries Aerial view of. London Is Dagenham Essex or London?galleries, and other institutions, many of which are free of admission charges and are major as well as playing a research role. The first of these to be established was the inin 1753.
Originally containing antiquities, natural history specimens, and the national library, the museum now has 7 million artefacts from around the Is Dagenham Essex or London?. In 1824, the was founded to house the British national collection of Western paintings; this now occupies a prominent Is Dagenham Essex or London? in. The is the secondand the of the United Kingdom. There are many other research libraries, including the andas well asincluding the atthe atthe atand the at the.
Three major national museums are there: the for thetheand the. The was founded in 1856 to house depictions of figures from British history; its holdings now comprise the world's most extensive collection of portraits.
The national gallery of British art is atoriginally established as an annexe of the National Gallery in 1897. The Tate Gallery, as it was formerly known, also became a major centre for modern art.
In 2000, this collection moved toa new gallery housed in the formerwhich was Is Dagenham Essex or London? by the -based architecture firm of.
Music The hosts concerts and musical events. London is one of the major classical and capitals of the world and hosts major music corporations, such as andas well as countless bands, musicians and industry professionals.
The city is also home to many orchestras and concert halls, such as the principal base of the and thethe and theand the. London's two main opera houses are the and the home to the. Other significant instruments are at the cathedrals and major churches.
Several are within the city:, and. London has numerous venues for rock and pop concerts, including the world's busiest indoor venue, andas well as many mid-sized venues, such asthe and the. Severalincluding theSouth West Four,and 's are all held in London. The city is home to the original and thewhere recorded many of their hits. In the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, musicians and groups like,,,, andderived their sound from the streets and rhythms of London.
London was instrumental in the development ofwith figures such as the, and all based in the city. More recent artists to emerge from the London music scene include 's,the, the,,and. London is also a centre for urban music. In particular the genres, and evolved in the city from the foreign genres of, andalongside local. Music station was set up to support the rise of local music both in London and in the rest of the United Kingdom.
The largest parks in the are three of the eightnamely and its neighbour in the west, and to the north. Hyde Park in particular is popular for and sometimes hosts open-air concerts. Regent's Park containsthe world's oldest scientific zoo, and is near Wax Museum. Close to Hyde Park are smaller Royal Parks, and. A number of large parks lie outside the city centre, including and the remaining Royal Parks of to the southeast and and the largest to the southwest, is also a royal park, but, because it contains a palace, it is administered by theunlike the eight.
Close to Richmond Park iswhich has the world's largest collection of living plants. In 2003, the gardens were put on the list of. There are also parks administered by London's borough Councils, including in the and in the centre. Some more informal, semi-natural open spaces also exist, including the 320-hectare 790-acre ofandwhich covers 2,476 hectares 6,118 acres in the east.
Both are controlled by the. Hampstead Heath incorporatesa former and a popular location in the summer months when classical musical concerts are held by the lake, attracting thousands of people every weekend to enjoy the music, scenery and fireworks. Epping Forest is a popular venue for various outdoor activities, including mountain biking, walking, horse riding, golf, angling, and orienteering.
Walking The Horse Ride is a route overhung by trees on the western side of. Areas that provide for walks include, the eightcanals and disused railway tracks. Access to canals and rivers has improved recently, including the creation of thesome 28 miles 45 km of which is withinand The ; this runs 12 miles 19 km through along thea.
Sport Aerial view ofhome of the London has hosted the three times: in, andmaking it the first city to host the modern Games three times. The city was also the host of the in. In 2017, London hosted the for the first time. London's is and it has six clubs in the English as of the :,and. Other professional teams in London are, and. From 1924, Is Dagenham Essex or London?
original was the home of the. It hosted thewith England defeating West Germany, and served as the venue for the as well as 's final. The new serves exactly the same purposes and has a capacity of 90,000. Two union teams are based in London, and. While is more popular in the north of England, there are two professional rugby league clubs in London — the in the second-tierwho play at the inand the third-tier team, the from.
One of London's best-known annual sports competitions is theheld at the in the south-western suburb of. Played in late June to early July, it is the oldest tennis tournament in the world and widely considered the most prestigious.
London has two grounds, home of in and home of in. Lord's has hosted four finals of the and is known as the Home of Cricket. Other key events are the annual mass-participationin which some 35,000 runners attempt a 26. The London Mayor is distinguished from thewho heads the running the. Eurostat uses the sum of the populations of the contiguous urban core and the surrounding commuting zone as its definition. According to the Oxford English Reference Dictionary definition of 'the most important town' and many other authorities.
Degrees during this time were awarded by the federal university; however, the college now issues its own degrees. Archaeology Data Service, The University of York.
Dictionary of London Place Names. Of course until relatively recent times the name London referred only to the City of London with even Westminster remaining a separate entity. But when the County of London was created in 1888, the name often came to be rather loosely used for this much larger area, which was also sometimes referred to as Greater London from about this date.
However, in 1965 Greater London was newly defined as a much enlarged area. Institute for Urban Strategies — The Mori Memorial Foundation. A Dictionary of London Place Names. Transactions of the Philological Society. Transactions of the Philological Society. Language Contact and the Origins of the Germanic Languages. A Dictionary of London Place Names. In Lapidge, Michael; Blair, John; Keynes, Simon; Scragg, Donald eds.
The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England. In Lapidge, Michael; Blair, John; Keynes, Simon; Scragg, Donald eds. The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England. London — The Cities of London and Westminster. An Historical Geography of Europe 450 B. The Queen's Merchants and the Revolt of the Netherlands The End of the Antwerp Mart, Vol 2. The Life and Times of Sir Thomas Gresham, Founder of the Royal Exchange: Including Notices of Many of His Contemporaries.
English Civil War Fortifications 1642—51, Volume 9 of Fortress, Is Dagenham Essex or London?, Osprey Publishing. Razzell, Peter; Razzell, Edward, eds. The English Civil War: A contemporary Is Dagenham Essex or London? v. Wencelaus Hollar IllustratorChristopher Hill Introduction.
History of the Great Civil War, 1642-1649. Forgotten Books published 16 July 2017. The Curious Life of Robert Hooke: The Man Who Measured London. Jarndyce Autumn Miscellany catalogue, London: 2021. Order without Design: How Markets Shape Cities. University of North Carolina at Pembroke. Photographs by Matthew Weinreb 3rd ed.
Walking Tour London: Sketches of the city's architectural treasures. Journey Through London's Urban Landscapes. International Handbook of Globalization and World Cities.
The Inner London Letter Post. London Postcode and Administrative Boundaries 6 ed. Office of Public Sector Information.
Is Barking and Dagenham really the worst place to live in the UK?
Office of Public Sector Information. Collins English dictionary 3rd updated ed. The Oxford English Reference Dictionary 2nd, rev ed. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Parliament of the United Kingdom. Council for British Archaeology 45. Royal Borough of Is Dagenham Essex or London? and Chelsea. Beyond Black and White: Mapping New Immigrant Communities. London: Institute for Public Policy Research.
Institute for Public Policy Research. The figure given was the central estimate. See the source for 95%. Dean and Chapter St Paul's. Dean and Chapter of Westminster. London Central Mosque Trust Ltd. The Jewish Agency for Israel. The Docklands and East London Advertiser. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary 3rd ed. Oxford Economic Forecasting on behalf of the Corporation of London. Archives in London and the M25 area.
Dictionary of London Place Names. London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. The Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race. Dictionary of London Place Names.