Cupid, ancient Roman god of love in all its varieties, the counterpart of the Greek god Eros and the equivalent of Amor in Latin poetry. According to myth, Cupid was the son of Mercury, the winged messenger of the gods, and Venus, the goddess of love.
He is often portrayed as the son of the love goddess and the god of war. Although Eros is generally portrayed as a slender winged youth induring thehe was increasingly portrayed as a chubby boy. During this time, his iconography acquired the that represent his source of power: a person, or even a deity, who is shot by Cupid's arrow is filled with uncontrollable desire. In myths, Cupid is a minor character who serves mostly to set the plot in motion.
He is a main character only in the tale ofwhen wounded by his own weapons, he experiences the ordeal of love. His powers are similar, though not identical, tothe god of human love.
In art, Cupid often appears in multiples as the Amores, or amorini in the later terminology ofthe equivalent of the Greek. Cupids are a frequent motif of both and later of the. In the 15th century, the iconography of Cupid starts to become indistinguishable Who is Cupids equivalent in Greek mythology?
the. Cupid continued to be a popular figure in thewhen under Christian influence he often had a dual nature as Heavenly and Earthly love. In thea renewed interest in classical philosophy endowed him with complex meanings.
In contemporary popular culture, Cupid is shown drawing his bow to inspire romantic love, often as an icon of. In the Greek tradition, Eros had a dual, contradictory genealogy. He was among the who came into existence asexually; after his generation, deities were begotten through male-female unions.
In 's Theogony, only and Earth are older. Before the existence of gender dichotomy, Eros functioned by causing entities to separate from themselves that which they already contained. At the same time, the Eros who was pictured as a boy or slim youth was regarded as the child of a divine couple, the identity of whom varied by source. The Greek travel writerhe notes, contradicts himself by saying at one point that Eros welcomed Aphrodite into the world, and at another that Eros was the son of Aphrodite and the youngest of the gods.
InCupid is usually treated as the son of Venus without reference to a father. The multiple Cupids frolicking in art are the decorative manifestation of these proliferating loves and desires. In the laterCupid is most often regarded as the son of Venus and Mars, whose love affair represented an of Love and War.
Who is Cupids equivalent in Greek mythology? duality between the primordial and the sexually conceived Eros accommodated philosophical concepts of Heavenly and Earthly Love even in the Christian era. Cupid is also sometimes depicted blindfolded and described as blind, not so much in the sense of sightless—since the sight of the beloved can be a spur to love—as blinkered and arbitrary.
As described by in 1590s : Love looks not with the eyes, but with the mind And therefore is winged Cupid painted blind. Nor hath love's mind of any judgement taste; Wings and no eyes figure unheedy haste. And therefore is love said to be a child Because in choice he is so oft beguiled. In 's 1482also known by its Italian title La Primavera, Cupid is shown blindfolded while shooting his arrow, positioned above the central figure of Venus.
Particularly in ancient Roman art, cupids may also carry or be surrounded by fruits, animals, or attributes of the or the wine-godsymbolizing the earth's generative capacity. Having all these associations, Cupid is considered to share parallels with the Hindu god.
From a 14th-century text of. Cupid carries two kinds of arrows, or darts, one with a sharp golden point, and the other with a blunt tip of lead. A person wounded by the golden arrow is filled with uncontrollable desire, but the one struck by the lead feels aversion and desires only to flee. The use of these arrows is described by the in the first book of his. When taunts Cupid as the lesser archer, Cupid shoots him with the golden arrow, but strikes the object of his desire, the nymphwith the lead.
Trapped by Apollo's unwanted advances, Daphne prays to her father, the river godwho turns her into a laurel, the tree sacred to Apollo. It is the first of several unsuccessful or tragic love affairs for Apollo.
This theme is somewhat mirrored in the story ofas the goddess forces the nymph Echo's love upon Narcisuss, who is cursed by the goddess to be self absorbed and unresponsive to her desires. He cries and runs to his mother Venus, complaining that so small a creature shouldn't cause such painful wounds. Venus laughs, and points out the poetic justice: he too is small, and yet delivers the sting of love.
It was retold numerous times in both art and poetry during the Renaissance. Who is Cupids equivalent in Greek mythology? theme brought the poetry cycle 1595 of to a conclusion, and furnished subject matter for at least twenty works by and his workshop. In a version bya writer of thethe incident prompts Cupid to turn himself into a bee: Through this sting was Amor made wiser.
The untiring deceiver Who is Cupids equivalent in Greek mythology? another battle-plan: he lurked beneath the carnations and roses and when a maiden came to pick them, he flew out as a bee and stung her. The image of Cupid as a bee is part of a complex tradition of poetic imagery involving the flower of youth, the sting of love as a deflowering, and honey as a secretion of love.
Onthe image may represent the soul's journey, originally associated with.
A mosaic from late shows a procession emerging from the mouth of the sea godfirst dolphins and then sea birds, ascending to Cupid. One interpretation of this allegory is that Neptune represents the soul's origin in the matter from which life was fashioned, with Cupid triumphing as the soul's desired destiny.
In other contexts, Cupid with a dolphin recurs as a playful motif, as in garden statuary at that shows a dolphin rescuing Cupid from an octopus, or Cupid holding a dolphin.
The dolphin, often elaborated fantastically, might be constructed as a spout for a fountain. On a modern-era fountain in the, Cupid seems to be strangling a dolphin.
Dolphins were often portrayed in antiquity as friendly to humans, and the dolphin itself could represent affection. In erotic scenes from mythology, Cupid riding the dolphin may convey how swiftly love moves, or the Cupid astride a sea beast may be a reassuring presence for the wild ride of love.
A dolphin-riding Cupid may attend scenes depicting the wedding of Neptune and or the Triumph of Neptune, also known as a marine. The innovativewho wrote during the reign ofreinterpreted Cupid as a seductive but malicious figure who exploits desire to draw people into an allegorical underworld of vice.
To Theodulf, Cupid's quiver symbolized his depraved mind, his bow trickery, his arrows poison, and his torch burning passion. It was appropriate to portray him naked, so as not to conceal his deception and evil. This conception largely followed his Who is Cupids equivalent in Greek mythology? to lust, but would later be diluted as many Christians embraced Cupid as a symbolic representation of love.
The ancient type was known at the time through descriptions in classical literature, and at least one extant example had been displayed in the sculpture garden of since 1488.
Michelangelo's work was important in establishing the reputation of the young artist, who was only twenty at the time. After the deception was acknowledged, the Cupid Sleeping was displayed as evidence of his virtuosity alongside an ancient marble, attributed toof Cupid asleep on a lion skin. In the poetry of d. A by his literary rival exhorted artists to paint the theme.
A catalogue of works from antiquity collected by thepatrons ofincluded sketches of sleeping cupids based on sculpture from the in Rome. Caravaggio's sleeping Cupid was reconceived in byand the subject recurred throughout Roman and Italian work of the period. His collection of concludes with what might be his most famous line: Omnia vincit Amor: et nos cedamus Amori.
Love conquers all, and so let us surrender ourselves to Love. The theme was also expressed as the of Cupid, as in the of. A Cupid might appear among the several statuettes for private devotion in abut there is no clear distinction between figures for veneration and those displayed as art or decoration. This is a distinction from his Greek equivalent,who was commonly worshipped alongside his motherand was even given a sacred day upon the 4th of every month.
An inscription from in records statues of Mars and Cupid among the public works of a wealthy female priestand another list of benefactions by a of includes statues of Venus and Cupid. Cupid became more common in from the time ofthe first. After thewhen and were defeated, Cupid transferring the weapons of Mars to his mother Venus became a motif of Augustan imagery.
In thethe national epic of Rome by the poetCupid disguises himself asthe son of who was in turn the son of Venus herself, and in this form he beguiles to fall in love with the hero. She gives safe harbor to Aeneas and his band of refugees fromonly to be abandoned by him as he fulfills his destiny to.
Iulus also known as becomes the mythical founder of the from which came. Augustus, Caesar's heir, commemorated a beloved great-grandson who died as a child by having him portrayed as Cupid, dedicating one such statue at the Temple of Venus on theand keeping one in his bedroom where he kissed it at night.
A brother of this child became the emperorwhose mother appears in a surviving portrait-sculpture as Venus, with Cupid on her shoulder. The is accompanied by a.
Aeneas Introducing Cupid Dressed as Ascanius to Dido 1757 by As a winged figure, Cupido shared some characteristics with the. On coinage issued by theCupid bears thethe most common attribute of Victory. In Latin philosophical discourse, cupido is the equivalent of Greeka focus of reflections on the meaning and burden of desire.
Incupido can represent human lust and an animal instinct to mate, but also the impulse of atoms to bond and form matter. An association of sex and violence is found in the erotic fascination Who is Cupids equivalent in Greek mythology?who often had sexualized names such as Cupido. Cupid was the enemy ofand the poet opposes him tothe virgin goddess of the hunt who likewise carries a bow but who hates Cupid's passion-provoking arrows. Cupid is also at odds withthe archer-brother of Diana and patron of poetic inspiration whose love affairs almost always end disastrously.
Ovid blames Cupid for causing him to write love poetry instead of the more respectable epic. The fame of Psyche's beauty threatens to eclipse that of Venus herself, and the love goddess sends Cupid to work her revenge.
Cupid, however, becomes enamored of Psyche, and arranges for her to be taken to his palace.
Legendary Greek Gods and Goddesses in Mythology
He visits her by night, warning her not to try to look upon him. Psyche's envious sisters convince her that her lover must be a hideous monster, and she finally introduces a lamp into their chamber to see him. Startled by his beauty, she drips hot oil from the lamp and wakes him. She wanders the earth looking for him, and finally submits to the service of Venus, who tortures her. The goddess then sends Psyche on a series of quests. Each time she despairs, Who is Cupids equivalent in Greek mythology?
each time she is given divine aid. On her final task, she is to retrieve a dose of 's beauty from the underworld. She succeeds, but on the way back can't resist opening the box in the hope of benefitting from it herself, whereupon she falls into a torpid sleep. Cupid finds her in this state, and revives her by returning the sleep to the box.
Cupid grants her immortality so the couple can be wed as equals. The story's elements and allusions to accommodate multiple interpretations, and it has been analyzed as an and in light oforand. Often presented as an allegory of love overcoming death, the story was a frequent source of imagery for and other extant art of antiquity. Since the rediscovery of Apuleius's novel in thethe of Cupid and Psyche in the has been extensive. The story has been retold in poetry, drama, Who is Cupids equivalent in Greek mythology?
opera, and depicted widely in painting, sculpture, and various media. The story over the years has gained international acclaim and in 1991 inspired the Disney movie. It has been said that Gabrielle was inspired by the tale.
The tale is about a beautiful yet lonely woman with a heart of gold that is held captive by a hideous beast who has invisible servants to aid her in anything she desires within the confines of the castle walls.
She eventually falls in love with him despite his appearance and breaks the curse placed on him to reveal a handsome prince. He is often depicted with his mother in graphic arts, this is nearly always Venusplaying a horn. In other images, his mother is depicted scolding or even spanking him due to his mischievous nature. He is also shown wearing a helmet and carrying a buckler, perhaps in reference to 's Omnia vincit amor or as on wars for love, or love as war.
Most, and Salvatore Settis Harvard University Press, 2010pp. Citations of ancient sources from Conti given by John Mulryan and Steven Brown, Natale Conti's Mythologiae Books I—V Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2006vol. Jones-Davies and Ton Hoenselaars, introduction to Masque of Cupids, edited and annotated by John Jowett, in Thomas Middleton: The Collected Works Oxford University Press, 2007p.
Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery 1997 Prospect Books, 1998p. Paul Getty Museum Collection Getty Publications, 2002p. Varriano, Caravaggio Penn State Press, 2006pp.
Slavitt, Eclogues and Georgics of Virgil Johns Hopkins University Press, 1971, 1990p. Bernardo, Petrarch, Laura, and the Triumphs State University of New York, 1974p. Clarke, Art in the Lives of Ordinary Romans: Visual Representation and Non-Elite Viewers in Italy, 100 B. The Sacred and Civil Calendar of the Athenian Year. Studies of Roman De Gruyter, 2008p. McKeow, A Cabinet of Roman Curiosities Oxford University Press, 2010p.
Harris, War and Imperialism in Republican Rome: 327-70 B. Oxford University Press, 1979, 1985pp.