Question: Why are schizophrenics born in winter?

Conclusions: Seasonal variation of births among patients with schizophrenia may consist of two factors: 1) parental procreational habits causing a slight excess of births of both patients and unaffected siblings during the winter-spring months and 2) irregular environmental factors that considerably increase the ...

How is schizophrenia connected to the season of birth and whats the reason?

One factor, in particular, that has been postulated is season of birth, with the theory being that birth in the winter and spring months may contribute to the development of schizophrenia. The impetus for this theory was a study by Tramer in 1929, which showed a greater incidence of winter or spring births in patients.

Why is schizophrenia seasonal?

Our study shows that schizophrenia-related hospitalizations follow a seasonal pattern in both men and women. The distribution of peaks might be influenced by photoperiod changes which trigger worsening of symptoms and lead to exacerbations in schizophrenia.

When does a person have a personality disorder?

A person with a personality disorder has trouble perceiving and relating to situations and people. This causes significant problems and limitations in relationships, social activities, work and school.

In the case of schizophrenia, alogia involves a disruption in the thought process that leads to a lack of speech and issues with verbal fluency. For this reason, it is thought that alogia that appears as part of schizophrenia may result from disorganized semantic memory.

What are negative symptoms of schizophrenia?

Negative mental symptomsa seeming lack of interest in the world.not wanting to interact with other people (social withdrawal)an inability to feel or express pleasure (anhedonia)an inability to act spontaneously.decreased sense of purpose.lack of motivation (avolition)not talking much.More items...•Mar 30, 2020

When does SAD usually start?

SAD may begin at any age, but it typically starts when a person is between ages 18 and 30.

Risk factors related to schizophrenia Risk factors of schizophrenia include many genetic and environmental phenomena. The prevailing model of is that of a special with no precise boundary or single cause i. Schizophrenia is thought to develop from very complex with vulnerability factors. The interactions of these risk factors are intricate, as numerous and diverse from conception to adulthood can be involved.

The combination of genetic and environmental factors leads to deficits in the that affect sensory input and cognitive functions. Historically, this theory has been broadly accepted but impossible to prove given ethical limitations.

Why are schizophrenics born in winter? genetic predisposition on its own, without superimposed environmental risk factors, generally does not give rise to schizophrenia. Environmental risk factors are many, and includeandand. An environmental risk factor may act alone or in combination with others.

Schizophrenia typically develops between the ages of 16—30 generally males aged 16—25 years and females 25—30 years ; about 75 percent of people living with the illness developed it in these age-ranges. On average there is a somewhat earlier onset for men than women, with the possible influence of the female sex hormone being and socio-cultural influences.

Estrogen seems to have a dampening effect on. This is a complex process involving multiple environmental factors that have influence on a range of that interact with a genetic susceptibility. It has been suggested that apart from gene-environment interactions, environment-environment interactions also be taken into account as each environmental risk factor on its own is not enough to promote the development of schizophrenia.

Research has shown that schizophrenia is a polygenic disorder and that genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia is highlycaused by the interactions of several genes with environmental risk factors. Family studies indicate that the closer a person's genetic relatedness to a person with schizophrenia, the greater the likelihood of developing the Why are schizophrenics born in winter?. The paternal age is a factor in schizophrenia because of the increased likelihood of mutations in the chromosomes of cells that produce sperm.

In contrast, women's oocytes divide twenty-three times before the time of birth. The average concordance rates are higher for identical twins than for and evidence also suggests that the prenatal and perinatal environments may also affect concordance rates in identical twins. However, some large-scale studies have begun to unravel the genetic underpinnings for the disease. This female-specific association was replicated in several populations.

Studies have found evidence that the known as might be involved in susceptibility to schizophrenia. The statistical distributions suggested nothing more than chance variation. The perhaps largest analysis of genetic associations in schizophrenia is with the database at the. One 2008 examined genetic variants in 16 genes and found nominally significant effects. A 2009 study was able to create mice matching symptoms of schizophrenia by the deletion of only one gene set, those of the post-synaptic receptor.

The result showed that although the mice mostly developed normally, on further brain development, glutamate receptors broke down. People normally have two copies of each gene, but in those people with autism some genome locations have only single copies, and in those with schizophrenia extra copies are present at the same locations. In 2013 this dataset was expanded to identify in total 13 candidate loci for the disease, and also implicated calcium signaling as an important factor in the disease.

Together, these candidate genes pointed to an importance of neurotransmission and immunology as important factors in the disease. A 2016 study implicated the in schizophrenia risk. C4A was found to play a role in synaptic pruning, and increased C4A expression leads to reduced dendritic spines and a higher schizophrenia risk.

Why are schizophrenics born in winter?

Within them, deletions in regions related to were observed, Why are schizophrenics born in winter? well as deletions on chromosome 15q13. This results in deletions and duplications of dosage sensitive genes. This study further supported genetic involvement for excitatory neurotransmission. Many are associated with prenatal development, prenatal stress and nutrition, pregnancy and childbirth. Later ones include adverse childhood experiences and. That said, the first and only experimental proof that schizophrenia neuropathology definitively originates from multiple causes within human tissue has originated from prenatal developing neural tissue generated from patient stem cells, therefore establishing prenatal development as a poorly understood but important window of risk.

Obstetric complications occur in approximately 25 to 30% of the general population and the vast majority do not develop schizophrenia; likewise the majority of individuals with schizophrenia have not had an identifiable obstetric event.

Nevertheless, the increased average risk is replicable, and such events may moderate the effects Why are schizophrenics born in winter? genetic or other environmental risk factors. The specific complications or events most linked to schizophrenia, and the mechanisms of their effects, are still under examination. There is some evidence that such as can also increase the risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. One finding is that people diagnosed with schizophrenia are more likely to have been born in or at Why are schizophrenics born in winter?

in the. This has been termed the seasonality effect, however, the effect is small. Explanations have included a greater prevalence of viral infections at that time, or a greater likelihood of deficiency. A similar effect increased likelihood of being born in winter and spring has also been found with other, healthy populations, such as chess players.

Many women who were pregnant during thesuffered fromand many of their children later developed schizophrenia. Studies of mothers who were pregnant when they learned their husbands were killed during the of 1939—1940 had children who were significantly more likely to develop schizophrenia when compared with mothers who learned about their husbands' deaths after childbirth, suggesting that may have an effect as well.

In the first and only prospective study of the low birthweight, schizophrenia, and enlargement of suggestive of cerebral atrophy, Leigh Silverton and colleagues found that low birthweight measured prospectively with regard to psychopathology was associated with enlarged ventricles on in a sample at risk for schizophrenia over 30 years later. These signs suggestive of cerebral atrophy were associated with schizophrenia Why are schizophrenics born in winter?.

In a follow up study, Silverton et al. The risk of enlarged ventricles on brain scan associated with schizophrenia symptoms and biologically suggestive of 's dementia praecox was greatly increased if the subjects had both a higher genetic load for schizophrenia and lower birthweight. Some investigators have noted, however, that any factor adversely affecting the fetus will affect growth rate.

Some believe that this association may not be particularly informative with regard to causation. In addition, the majority of birth cohort studies have failed to find a link between schizophrenia and low birth weight or other signs of growth retardation.

The majority of studies do not measure the interaction of genetic risk with birthweight as was done in the studies by Silverton et al. Hypoxia is demonstrated as relevant to schizophrenia in animal models, molecular biology and epidemiology studies. One study was able to differentiate 90% of cases of schizophrenia from controls based on hypoxia and metabolism.

Hypoxia has been described as one of the most important of the external factors that influence susceptibility, although studies have been mainly. Such studies place a high degree of importance on hypoxic insult, but given the pattern of the illness in some families, they propose a genetic basis as well; stopping short of concluding that hypoxia is a sole cause on its own.

Although most studies have interpreted hypoxia as causing some form of neuronal dysfunction or even subtle damage, it has been suggested that the physiological hypoxia that prevails in normal embryonic and fetal development, or pathological hypoxia ormay exert an effect by regulating or dysregulating genes involved in neurodevelopment.

Fetal hypoxia has been found to predict unusual movements at age 4 but not age 7 among children who go on to develop schizophrenia, suggesting that its effects are specific to a stage of neurodevelopment.

A Japanese case study of for schizophrenia one has the diagnosis while the other does not draws attention to their different weights at birth and concludes hypoxia may be the differentiating factor. The unusual functional laterality in speech production e. Prenatal and perinatal hypoxia appears to be important as one factor in the neurodevelopmental model, with the important implication that some forms of schizophrenia may thus be preventable. Several animal studies have indicated that fetal hypoxia can affect many of the same neural substrates implicated in schizophrenia, depending on the severity and duration of the hypoxic event as well as the period of gestation, and in humans moderate or severe but not mild fetal hypoxia has been linked to a series of motor, language and cognitive deficits in children, regardless of genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia.

Although objective estimates of hypoxia did not account for all cases of schizophrenia; the study revealed increasing odds of schizophrenia according to graded increase in severity of hypoxia. Schizophrenia is somewhat Why Why are schizophrenics born in winter? schizophrenics born in winter? common in those born in winter to early spring, when such infections are more common.

A 1988 study found that individuals who were exposed to the in the second trimester were at increased risk of later developing schizophrenia. This result was corroborated by a later British study of the same pandemic, but not by a 1994 study of the pandemic in Croatia. A Why are schizophrenics born in winter? study Why are schizophrenics born in winter? found no support for a link between schizophrenia and birth after an influenza epidemic.

Yolken have hypothesized that the latter, a common parasite in humans, contributes to some cases of schizophrenia. In a meta-analysis of several studies, they found moderately higher levels of Toxoplasma antibodies in those with schizophrenia and possibly higher rates of prenatal or early postnatal exposure to Toxoplasma gondii, but not acute infection. However, in another study of postmortem brain tissue, the authors have reported equivocal or negative results, including no evidence of herpes virus or T.

There is some evidence for the role of in the development of some cases of schizophrenia. A statistical correlation has been reported with various and direct studies have linked dysfunctional immune activation to some of the clinical features of schizophrenia.

This is known as the pathogenic theory of schizophrenia or germ theory of schizophrenia. It is a in which it is thought that a proximal cause of certain cases of is the interaction of the developing fetus with such asor with from the mother created in response to these pathogens in particular.

Substantial research suggests that exposure to certain illnesses e. Also, in mothers with schizophrenia, an increased risk has been identified via a complex interaction between maternal genotype, maternal behavior, prenatal environment and possibly medication and socioeconomic factors.

References for many of these environmental risk factors have been collected in an online database. There may be an association between and schizophrenia in a small proportion of people, though large and studies will be needed before such an association can be firmly established.

A meta-analysis found that high neuroticism increases the risk of psychosis and schizophrenia.

Benefits Of Your Kid Being Born In The Colder Months

Several long-term studies found that individuals born with congenital do not develop schizophrenia, suggesting a protective effect. Add-on estrogen therapies have been studied and evaluated for their effect on the symptoms experienced. Findings have supported the hypothesis that schizophrenia is associated with alterations of the - due to activation of specific sections of the.

The relevance of some auto-antibodies that act against the and is being studied. Current estimates suggest that between 1. Preliminary results have shown that these patients can be treated with such as or andin addition to antipsychotic medication swhich can lead to a reduction in symptoms. Average group differences from the norm may be in the direction of superior as well as inferior performance.

Overall, birth cohort studies have indicated subtle nonspecific behavioral features, some evidence for psychotic-like experiences particularly hallucinationsand various cognitive antecedents.

There have been some inconsistencies in the particular domains of functioning identified and whether they continue through childhood and whether they are specific to schizophrenia. A prospective study found average differences across a range of developmental domains, including reaching milestones of motor development late, having Why are schizophrenics born in winter?

speech deficits, lower educational test results, solitary play preferences at ages 4 and 6 years, and being more socially anxious at age 13 years. Lower ratings of the mother's skills and understanding of the child at age 4 were also related.

Some of the early developmental differences were identified in the first year of life in a study in Finland, although generally related to all psychotic disorders rather than schizophrenia specifically. The early subtle motor signs persisted to some extent, showing a small link to later school performance in adolescence.

Patients in this age group with these symptoms were significantly less likely to progress to high school, despite academic ability. Symptoms of schizophrenia often appear soon after puberty, when the brain is undergoing significant maturational changes. Some investigators believe that the disease process of schizophrenia begins prenatally, remains dormant until puberty, then follows a period of neural degeneration that causes the symptoms to subsequently emerge.

However, reanalysis of the data from the later Finnish study, on older children 14 to 16 in a changed school system, using narrower diagnostic criteria and with fewer cases but more controls, did not support a significant difference on sports and handicraft performance. Another study found that unusual motor coordination scores at 7 years of age were associated in adulthood with schizophrenia patients and their unaffected siblings, while unusual movements at ages 4 and 7 predicted adult schizophrenia but not unaffected sibling status.

A birth cohort study in New Zealand found that children who went on Why are schizophrenics born in winter? develop had — in addition to emotional problems and interpersonal difficulties linked to all adult psychiatric outcomes measured — significant impairments in neuromotor,and cognitive development. A retrospective study found that adults with schizophrenia had performed better than average in artistic subjects at ages 12 and 15, and in linguistic and religious subjects at age 12, but worse than average in gymnastics at age 15.

Some small studies on offspring of individuals with schizophrenia have identified various neurobehavioral deficits, a poorer family environment and disruptive school behaviour, poor peer engagement, immaturity, or unpopularity or poorer and increasing schizophrenic symptomatology emerging during adolescence. There is evidence that are Why are schizophrenics born in winter? factors Why are schizophrenics born in winter?

a diagnosis of schizophrenia later in life. Some researchers reported that hallucinations and other symptoms considered characteristic of schizophrenia and psychosis were at least as strongly related to neglect and childhood abuse as many other mental health problems.

Why are schizophrenics born in winter?

A diagnosis of substance-induced psychosis is Why are schizophrenics born in winter? if symptoms persist after drug use or intoxication has ended. A number of substance-induced psychoses have the Why are schizophrenics born in winter?

to transition to schizophrenia, most notably cannabis-induced psychosis. Lower rates were reported for opioid 12%alcohol 10% and sedative 9% induced psychoses. Transition rates were slightly lower in older cohorts but were not affected by sex, country of study, hospital or community location, urban or rural setting, diagnostic methods, or duration of follow-up. The rate of substance use is known to be particularly high in schizophrenia patients. One study found that 60% of people with schizophrenia were found to use substances and 37% would be diagnosable with a substance use disorder.

Nevertheless, some previous research has been criticised as it has often been unclear whether cannabis use is a cause or effect of schizophrenia.

Cannabis misuse by young people is suspected of contributing to schizophrenia in later life by interfering with and distorting particularly of the of the brain. An olderpublished in 1987, suggested a sixfold increase of schizophrenia risk for high consumers of cannabis use on more than fifty occasions in. Cannabis use is also suspected to contribute to a hyperdopaminergic state that may contribute to schizophrenia. Despite increases in cannabis consumption in the 1960s and 1970s in western society, rates of psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia remained relatively stable over time.

Methamphetamine, a potent neurotoxic amphetamine derivative, in a substantial minority of regular users induces psychosis that resembles. For most people, this psychosis fades away within a month of abstinence but for a minority, the psychosis can become chronic. Individuals who develop a long lasting psychosis, despite abstinence from methamphetamine, more commonly have a family history of schizophrenia. Individuals with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder or schizophrenia who were prescribed stimulants during childhood typically have a significantly earlier onset of psychosis and suffer a more severe clinical course.

It has been suggested that this small subgroup of children who develop schizophrenia after stimulant use in childhood have an inherent genetic vulnerability to developing psychosis. In addition, amphetamines can cause a in otherwise healthy individuals; superficially resembles schizophrenia and may be misdiagnosed as such.

Alcohol-related psychosis arises from distortions to neuronal membranes,and in some cases. There is evidence that via a can occasionally cause the development of chronic that may transition to schizophrenia in predisposed individuals. The rates are exceptionally high amongst institutionalized patients and homeless people.

In a census from 1993, 74% of people with schizophrenia living in institutions were found to be smokers. A 1999 study that covered all people with schizophrenia infound a 58% prevalence of cigarette smoking, to compare with 28% in the general population.

An older study found that as much as 88% of outpatients with schizophrenia were smokers. Despite the higher prevalence of tobacco smoking, people diagnosed with schizophrenia have a much lower than average chance of developing and dying from. It is of interest that cigarette smoking affects liver function such that the used to treat schizophrenia are metabolized more quickly. Consequently smokers with schizophrenia need slightly higher doses of antipsychotic drugs in order to attain therapeutic effect.

The increased rate of smoking in schizophrenia may arise from a desire to self-medicate with. One possible reason is that smoking produces a short-term improvement in alertness and cognitive functioning.

It has been postulated that the mechanism of this effect is that people with schizophrenia have a disturbance of nicotinic receptor functioning which is temporarily abated by tobacco use. However, some researchers have questioned whether self-medication is really the best explanation for the association.

Why are schizophrenics born in winter?

A study from 1989 and a 2004 case study showed that when haloperidol is administered, nicotine limits the extent to which the antipsychotic increases the of the dopamine-2 receptor. Dependent on the dopamine system, symptoms of are not found in the nicotine-administered patients despite a roughly 70% increase in Why are schizophrenics born in winter? receptor activity, but the controls had more than 90% and developed symptoms. A 1997 study showed that antipsychotic-induced was significantly reduced upon administration of nicotine.

This finding supports the notion that tobacco could be used to self-medicate by limiting effects of the illness, the medication, or both. Stressful life events generally precede the onset of schizophrenia.

A personal or recent family history of migration is a considerable risk factor for schizophrenia, which has been linked to psychosocial adversity, social defeat from being an outsider,family dysfunction,and poor housing conditions.

Unemployment and early separation from parents are some important factors associated with higher rates of schizophrenia among British African Caribbean populations, in comparison to native African Caribbean populations.

This example shows that social disadvantage plays a role in the onset of schizophrenia, in addition to genetic vulnerability. Large-scale general population studies indicate an increasing risk from additional experiences of maltreatment, although a critical review suggests conceptual and methodological issues require further research. Specific social experiences have been linked to specific psychological mechanisms and psychotic experiences in schizophrenia.

In addition, structural neuroimaging studies of victims of sexual abuse and other trauma have sometimes reported findings similar to those found in some psychotic Why are schizophrenics born in winter?, such as thinning of the corpus callosum, loss of volume in the anterior cingulate cortex, and reduced hippocampal volume.

The effect does not appear to be due to a higher incidence of obstetric complications in urban environments. The cumulative effects of associated with the urban environment have been suggested as the link between urbanicity and the higher risk of developing schizophrenia. Various possible explanations for the effect have been judged unlikely based on the nature of the findings, including infectious causes or a general stress effect.

Although family members and significant others are not held responsible for schizophrenia - the attitudes, behaviors and interactions of all parties are addressed; unsupportive, dysfunctional relationships may also contribute to an increased risk of developing schizophrenia in predisposed individuals.

Firm psychological boundaries should be established between one's self and one's identity and those of the parents. Pushing the role of parents into the background and developing a healthy sense of self can be a method for recovery. Social support systems are very important for those with schizophrenia and the people with whom they have relationships.

In particular, the combination of a maternal infection during pregnancy followed by heightened stress at the onset of sexual maturity markedly increases the probability that a mouse develops neuropsychiatric symptoms, whereas the occurrence of one of these factors without the other does not. Psychiatrists, and others have argued that the symptoms of what is called mental illness are comprehensible reactions to impossible demands that society and particularly family life place on vulnerable individuals.

Laing, Arieti and Lidz were notable in valuing the content of experiences as worthy of interpretation, rather than considering psychotic experiences simply secondary and possibly meaningless markers of underlying psychological or neurological distress. Laing described eleven case studies of people diagnosed with schizophrenia and argued that the content of their actions and statements was meaningful and logical in the context of their family and life contexts.

In 1956, and his colleagues, and articulated a theory of schizophrenia, related to Laing's work, as stemming from situations where a person receives different or contradictory messages. Madness was therefore an expression of this distress and should be valued as a and transformative experience. In the books Schizophrenia and the Family and The Origin and Treatment of Schizophrenic Disorders Lidz and his colleagues report their belief that parental behaviour can generally result in mental illness in children.

Arieti's won the 1975 scientific in the United States. The concept of schizophrenia as a result of civilization has Why are schizophrenics born in winter? developed further by psychologist in his 1976 book ; he proposed that until the beginning of historic times, schizophrenia or a similar condition was the normal state of human consciousness.

However, unlike the currentthey may argue that causes the shamans' schizoid personalities. Commentators such as and others have Why are schizophrenics born in winter? the idea that major religious figures experienced psychosis; they heard voices and displayed delusions of grandeur. Modern clinical psychological research has indicated a number of processes which may precipitate episodes of schizophrenia.

A number of and deficits have been identified. These include attribution biases in social interactions, difficulty distinguishing inner speech from that of external sources source monitoringdifficulty with adjusting speech to the needs of the hearer, difficulties in the very earliest stages of processing visual information including reducedand an toward threats. Some of these tendencies have been shown to worsen or emerge under emotional stress or in confusing Why are schizophrenics born in winter?.

As with related neurological findings, they are not common to all individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, and it is not clear how specific they are to schizophrenia itself. However, the findings of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are reliable and consistent enough for some researchers to argue that they may be partially diagnostic. Impaired capacity to appreciate one's own and others' Why are schizophrenics born in winter?

states has been reported to be the single-best Why are schizophrenics born in winter? of poor social competence in schizophrenia, and similar cognitive features have been identified in close relatives of people diagnosed with schizophrenia, including those with.

A number of emotional factors have been implicated in schizophrenia, with some models putting them at the core of the disorder. It was thought that the appearance of blunted affect meant that sufferers did not experience strong emotions, however, other studies have indicated that there is often a normal or even heightened level of emotionality, particularly in response to negative events or stressful social situations.

Some theories suggest positive symptoms of schizophrenia can result from or be worsened by negative emotions, including depressed feelings, low and feelings of vulnerability, inferiority or. Chronic negative feelings and maladaptive coping skills may explain some of the association between psychosocial stressors and symptomatology. Critical and controlling behaviour by significant others high causes increased emotional arousal and lowered self-esteem and a subsequent increase in positive symptoms such as unusual thoughts.

Countries or cultures where personalities or schizophrenia symptoms are more accepted or valued appear to be associated with reduced onset of, or increased recovery from, schizophrenia. Related studies suggest that the content of delusional and psychotic beliefs in schizophrenia can be meaningful and play a causal or mediating role in reflecting the life history or social circumstances of the individual. Holding uncommon socio-cultural beliefs, for example due to ethnic background, has been linked to increased diagnosis of schizophrenia.

The way an individual interprets his or her delusions and hallucinations e. Other lines of work that relate to the self in schizophrenia have linked the disorder to psychological or abnormal states of awareness and identity as understood from perspective, such as in. Since psychosis is associated with greater levels of right brain hemisphere activation and a reduction in the usual left brain hemisphere dominance, our language abilities may have evolved at the cost of causing schizophrenia when this system breaks down.

Insome practitioners believe that there is a vast number of physical causes for the diagnosis of schizophrenia. While some of these explanations may stretch credulity, others such as heavy metal poisoning and nutritional imbalances have been supported at least somewhat by research. One explanation Why are schizophrenics born in winter?

be increased reproductive success by close relatives without symptoms but this explanation seems unlikely. Nonetheless, it has been argued that a small endowment of -increasing genes may increase reproductive success by increasing traits like creativity, verbal ability, and emotional sensitivity. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology. European Journal of Human Genetics.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. American Journal of Human Genetics. Molecular Genetics of Schizophrenia Why are schizophrenics born in winter?

2014. Barnes; Timothea Toulopoulou; et al. Disorganized Children: A Guide for Parents and Professionals, p 135. The British Journal of Psychiatry.

The American Journal of Psychiatry. The American Journal of Psychiatry. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. The British Journal of Psychiatry. The American Journal of Psychiatry. The Journal of Experimental Biology. Annals of the Romanian Society for Cell Biology. The American Journal of Psychiatry. Archives of Women's Mental Health.

The British Journal of Psychiatry. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The American Journal of Psychiatry. Sanity, Madness, and the Family. The transcendental temptation: A critique of religion and the paranormal. Schizophrenia: Innovations in Diagnosis and Treatment. Schizophrenia, vitamin D, and brain development.

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